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The present study was designed to test whether tramadol is effective in the control of neuropathic pain in rats. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve was induced over the left hind limb in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Identical surgery was performed on the opposite side except that the sciatic nerve was not ligated (sham surgery). Paw(More)
PURPOSE Oxytocin is associated with the ability to form normal social attachments. c-Fos is an immediate early gene whose expression is used as a marker for stimulus-induced changes in neurons. The effect of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors on oxytocin activation in the brain without sexual stimuli has not yet been reported. In the present study, we(More)
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