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Effective neural motor prostheses require a method for decoding neural activity representing desired movement. In particular, the accurate reconstruction of a continuous motion signal is necessary for the control of devices such as computer cursors, robots, or a patient's own paralyzed limbs. For such applications, we developed a real-time system that uses(More)
We present a switching Kalman filter model for the real-time inference of hand kinematics from a population of motor cortical neurons. Firing rates are modeled as a Gaussian mixture where the mean of each Gaussian component is a linear function of hand kinematics. A "hidden state" models the probability of each mixture component and evolves over time in a(More)
The direct neural control of external devices such as computer displays or prosthetic limbs requires the accurate decoding of neural activity representing continuous movement. We develop a real-time control system using the spiking activity of approximately 40 neurons recorded with an electrode array implanted in the arm area of primary motor cortex. In(More)
Statistical learning and probabilistic inference techniques are used to infer the hand position of a subject from multi-electrode recordings of neu-ral activity in motor cortex. First, an array of electrodes provides training data of neural firing conditioned on hand kinematics. We learn a non-parametric representation of this firing activity using a(More)
Aim. To investigate the relationship among GGT, ferritin, and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods. A total of 1024 eligible individuals of the Chinese Yi ethnic group were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The presence of metabolic syndrome was determined using the revised NCEP-ATP III and CDS criteria. Odds ratios for the metabolic syndrome and(More)
Tissue injury or inflammation of the nervous system may result in chronic neuropathic pain characterized by sensitivity to painful stimuli. P2X(3) receptors play a crucial role in facilitating pain transmission. Puerarin is an active compound of a traditional Chinese medicine Ge-gen, and Ge-gen soup has anti-inflammatory effects. The present research(More)
Many models have been proposed for the motor corti-cal encoding of arm motion. In particular, recent work has shown that simple linear models can be used to approximate the firing rates of a population of cells in primary motor cortex as a function of the position, velocity, and acceleration of the hand. Here we perform a systematic study of these linear(More)
The study investigated the effects of puerarin on P2X(3) receptor involved in hyperalgesia after burn injury in the rat. Superficial second degree burn injury models were adopted. Mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) were measured and the P2X(3) receptor expressions in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from burn injury models(More)
Neuropathic pain is the most difficult type of pain to treat. The P2X(3) receptors play a crucial role in facilitating pain transmission at peripheral and spinal sites. The present research investigated the effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on the primary afferent transmission induced by P2X(3) receptor in neuropathic pain states. Chronic constriction(More)