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Enhancers control the correct temporal and cell-type-specific activation of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. Knowing their properties, regulatory activity and targets is crucial to understand the regulation of differentiation and homeostasis. Here we use the FANTOM5 panel of samples, covering the majority of human tissues and cell types, to(More)
Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene(More)
To study the dynamics of stress fiber components in cultured fibroblasts, we expressed alpha-actinin and the myosin II regulatory myosin light chain (MLC) as fusion proteins with green fluorescent protein. Myosin activation was stimulated by treatment with calyculin A, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor that elevates MLC phosphorylation, or with LPA,(More)
Senescent and damaged mitochondria undergo selective mitophagic elimination through mechanisms requiring two Parkinson's disease factors, the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase protein 1; PTEN is phosphatase and tensin homolog) and the cytosolic ubiquitin ligase Parkin. The nature of the PINK-Parkin interaction and the identity of key(More)
RATIONALE Mitochondria constitute 30% of myocardial mass. Mitochondrial fusion and fission appear essential for health of most tissues. Mitochondrial fission occurs in neonatal cardiomycyte and is implicated in cardiomyocyte death. Mitochondrial fusion has not been observed in postmitotic myocytes of adult hearts, and its occurrence and function in this(More)
RATIONALE Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is essential for the bioenergetic feedback response through stimulation of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases. Close association of mitochondria to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) may explain efficient mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake despite low Ca(2+) affinity of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter. However, the existence of such(More)
Active human promoters produce promoter-upstream transcripts (PROMPTs). Why these RNAs are coupled to decay, whereas their neighboring promoter-downstream mRNAs are not, is unknown. Here high-throughput sequencing demonstrates that PROMPTs generally initiate in the antisense direction closely upstream of the transcription start sites (TSSs) of their(More)
We investigated the effects of PACAP treatment, and endogenous PACAP deficiency, on infarct volume, neurological function, and the cerebrocortical transcriptional response in a mouse model of stroke, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). PACAP-38 administered i.v. or i.c.v. 1 h after MCAO significantly reduced infarct volume, and ameliorated functional(More)
Production of fuels and chemicals by industrial biotechnology requires efficient, safe and flexible cell factory platforms that can be used for production of a wide range of compounds. Here we developed a platform yeast cell factory for efficient provision of acetyl-CoA that serves as precursor metabolite for a wide range of industrially interesting(More)
The ability to transfer metabolic pathways from the natural producer organisms to the well-characterized cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well documented. However, as many secondary metabolites are produced by collaborating enzymes assembled in complexes, metabolite production in yeast may be limited by the inability of the heterologous enzymes to(More)