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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha1 (GFRalpha1, also known as GDNFR-alpha) is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein of the GFRalpha family, which binds glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor [Jing S. et al. (1996) Cell 85, 1113-1124; Treanor J. J. et al. (1996) Nature 382, 80-83], a survival factor for several populations of(More)
We have previously reported that intracerebral administration of glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) reduces the extent of middle cerebral arterial (MCA) ligation-induced cortical infarction in rats. Recent studies have shown that application of 1, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (D3) enhances GDNF mRNA expression in vitro. The purpose of the(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has revolutionized investigations of brain functions. Increases in fMRI signals are usually correlated with neuronal activation, but diverse explanations have been proposed for negative fMRI responses, including decreases in neuronal activity, the vascular-steal effect, and large increases in oxygen consumption.(More)
Brain grafts directly placed in their target regions often lack proper connections and normal regulation. When brain grafts are placed in their ontogenetic normal area, the axonal outgrowth of grafts to distal target regions is a major obstacle. We previously demonstrated that directional axonal growth of grafts can be facilitated by laminin. In this study(More)
The physical repair and restoration of a completely damaged pathway in the brain has not been achieved previously. In a previous study, using excitatory amino acid bridging and fetal neural transplantation, we demonstrated that a bridged mesencephalic transplant in the substantia nigra generated an artificial nerve pathway that reinnervated the striatum of(More)
To explore the potential of using the recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector, expressing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as the gene therapy for stroke, we injected rAAV vectors expressing GDNF (rAAV-GDNF) into the cortex of rats which had been experiencing transient bilateral common carotid artery ligation and right middle(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Previous studies have indicated that both methamphetamine (MA) and ischemia/reperfusion injuries involve reactive oxygen species formation and activation of apoptotic mechanism. That MA could have a synergistic or additive effect with stroke-induced brain damage is possible. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether(More)
We have previously demonstrated that intranigral transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) tissue and nigrostriatal administration of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) restores striatal dopamine input in hemiparkinsonian rats. Since it has been found that GDNF is highly expressed in fetal kidney, we examined the possibility that(More)
An abdominal pseudocyst is a rare, but important complication in patients with a ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt insertion. Several predisposing factors for this complication have been suggested, including infection, obstruction or dislodgement, but the pathophysiology is still unknown. However, the abdominal inflammatory process is accepted widely as a(More)