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Although thyroid hormone (TH) plays a significant role in vertebrate neural development, the molecular basis of TH action on the brain is poorly understood. Using polymerase chain reaction-based subtractive hybridization we isolated 34 cDNAs for TH-regulated genes in the diencephalon of Xenopus tadpoles. Northern blots verified that the mRNAs are regulated(More)
The Xenopus laevis genome encodes two genes for the alpha (TR alpha) and two genes for the beta (TR beta) thyroid hormone receptors. The two TR alpha genes closely resemble their rat, human, and chicken counterparts. No alternatively spliced TR alpha cDNA clones were found in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). In contrast, complex alternative splicing of(More)
To investigate, at the molecular level, the remodeling of small intestine during amphibian metamorphosis, a subtractive hybridization approach was used to identify genes that are differentially regulated by thyroid hormone. A frog cDNA was isolated from Xenopus laevis and determined to be the gene encoding the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP)(More)
T lymphocytes must regulate nutrient uptake to meet the metabolic demands of an immune response. Here we show that the intracellular supply of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) in T cells was regulated by pathogens and the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). T cells responded to antigen by upregulating expression of many amino-acid transporters, but a single(More)
A full-length cDNA was isolated for a thyroid hormone response gene in the metamorphosing frog intestine and shown by sequence analysis to be the frog homolog of the mammalian extracellular matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-3 (ST3). Northern hybridization indicated that ST3 gene expression is differentially activated in tadpole tissues during(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) participate in extracellular matrix remodeling and degradation and have been implicated in playing important roles during organ development and pathological processes. Although it has been hypothesized for > 30 years that collagenase activities are responsible for collagen degradation during tadpole tail resorption, none of(More)
To determine whether the remodeling of the well-organized intestinal epithelium during amphibian metamorphosis is regionally regulated along the anteroposterior axis of the intestine, we raised a polyclonal antibody against the Xenopus laevis intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP), which is known to be specifically expressed in intestinal absorptive(More)
Thyroid hormone (T3) plays a causative role in amphibian metamorphosis. This regulation is thought to be mediated by heterodimers of T3 receptors (TRs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs). We report here that Xenopus TRs can indeed form strong heterodimers with Xenopus RXRs on the T3 response element (TRE) present in Xenopus TR beta genes. Using a T3-responsive(More)
Amphibian metamorphosis is marked by dramatic, thyroid hormone (TH)-induced changes involving gene regulation by TH receptor (TR). It has been postulated that TR-mediated gene regulation involves chromatin remodeling. In the absence of ligand, TR can repress gene expression by recruiting a histone deacetylase complex, whereas liganded TR recruits a histone(More)
We have identified a new human cDNA (y+L amino acid transporter-1 (y+LAT-1)) that induces system y+L transport activity with 4F2hc (the surface antigen 4F2 heavy chain) in oocytes. Human y+LAT-1 is a new member of a family of polytopic transmembrane proteins that are homologous to the yeast high affinity methionine permease MUP1. Other members of this(More)