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In this paper, we present a two-phase framework that integrates task assignment, ordering and voltage selection (VS) together to minimize energy consumption of real-time dependent tasks executing on a given number of variable voltage processors. Task assignment and ordering in the first phase strive to maximize the opportunities that can be exploited for(More)
The Pax-6 transcription-factor gene, containing a paired domain and a paired-type homeodomain, is conserved in structure and ubiquitously present among Metazoa. It is required for development of the central nervous system, and is mutated in human aniridia, mouse and rat small eye and Drosophila eyeless. We identified the Pax-6 gene of the nematode(More)
The Drosophila central nervous system develops from a segmentally reiterated array of 30 unique neural precursors, called neuroblasts. Each neuroblast goes through a stereotyped cell lineage to produce an invariant clone of neural progeny. It is critical to identify the genes that specify neuroblast identity as these genes control the time of formation,(More)
Oxidative injury to premyelinating oligodendrocytes (preOLs) in developing white matter has been implicated in the pathogenesis of periventricular leukomalacia, the lesion underlying most cases of cerebral palsy in premature infants. In this study, we investigated the pathways of OL death induced by intracellular glutathione (GSH) depletion. We found that(More)
Cannabinoids have been consistently shown to suppress microglia activation and the release of cytotoxic factors including nitric oxide, superoxide and proinflammatory cytokines. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and whether the action of cannabinoids is coupled to the activation of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2) receptors are still(More)
In this paper, we address the problem of minimizing energy consumption of real-time tasks on variable voltage processors whose transition energy overhead is not negligible. Voltage settings with minimum number of transitions are found first and sequences of lower voltage cycles are evaluated to decide voltage for each cycle of every task. Experimental(More)
2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) is the most abundant endocannabinoid in the central nervous system and is elevated after brain injury. Because of its rapid hydrolysis, however, the compensatory and neuroprotective effect of 2-AG is short-lived. Although inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase, a principal enzyme for 2-AG degradation, causes a robust increase of(More)
We investigated the mechanism of 3-morpholinosyndnomine (SIN-1) neurotoxicity in nearly pure neuronal cultures. In a simple saline solution, SIN-1 neurotoxicity was found to be mediated by peroxynitrite and independent of glutamate receptor activation [Y. Zhang & P.A. Rosenberg (2002) Eur. J. Neurosci, 16, 1015-1024]. To further study the mechanism of(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to both acute injury and long-term neurodegeneration, and is a major risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide deposits in the brain are one of the pathological hallmarks of AD. Aβ levels increase after TBI in animal models and in patients with head trauma, and reducing Aβ levels after(More)
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a protein enriched in astrocytes, and Tau, a protein abundant in neuronal microtubules, are being widely studied as biomarkers of brain injury, and persistent severity-dependent increases in brain and blood have been reported. Studies on the acute changes of these proteins after blast exposure are limited. Using a(More)