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Three mammalian hyaluronan synthase genes, HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3, have recently been cloned. In this study, we characterized and compared the enzymatic properties of these three HAS proteins. Expression of any of these genes in COS-1 cells or rat 3Y1 fibroblasts yielded de novo formation of a hyaluronan coat. The pericellular coats formed by HAS1(More)
AIMS To devise and evaluate a strategy for isolating members of the Streptomyces violaceusniger phenotypic cluster, which are known to be a promising source of bioactive metabolites. METHODS AND RESULTS The treatment of four soil samples with 1.5% phenol (30 degrees C, 30 min) prior to inoculation on humic acid-vitamin (HV) agar eliminated most of the(More)
A large gene cluster associated with the biosynthesis of the serotype-specific polysaccharide antigen (SPA) of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b) was cloned and characterized. Western blot analysis showed that Escherichia coli DH5alpha, containing a plasmid carrying this cluster, produced a polysaccharide which reacted with a monoclonal(More)
The serotype-specific polysaccharide antigen of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b) consists of D-fucose and L-rhamnose. Thymidine diphosphate (dTDP)-D-fucose is the activated nucleotide sugar form of D-fucose, which has been identified as a constituent of structural polysaccharides in only a few bacteria. In this paper, we show that three(More)
It has been proposed that numerical and temporal information are processed by partially overlapping magnitude systems. Interactions across different magnitude domains could occur both at the level of perception and decision-making. However, their neural correlates have been elusive. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans, we show that(More)
Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) play an important role in the initiation and progression of lung diseases. In this study, we investigated whether ROIs were involved in the induction of interleukin (IL)-6 in human bronchial epithelial cells. We exposed normal human bronchial epithelial cells as well as a human bronchial epithelial cell line, HS-24, to(More)
Hypocretins/orexins are neuropeptides implicated in sleep regulation and the sleep disorder narcolepsy. In order to examine how hypocretin activity fluctuates across 24 h with respect to the sleep-wake cycle, we measured changes in extracellular hypocretin-1 levels in the lateral hypothalamus and medial thalamus of freely moving rats with simultaneous sleep(More)
Mild self-etch adhesives demineralize dentin only partially, leaving hydroxyapatite around collagen within a submicron hybrid layer. We hypothesized that this residual hydroxyapatite may serve as a receptor for chemical interaction with the functional monomer and, subsequently, contribute to adhesive performance in addition to micro-mechanical(More)
Hypocretin-1 is consistently detectable in the CSF of healthy human subjects, but is absent in narcoleptics. However, functional roles of CSF hypocretin are largely unknown. We examined fluctuation of CSF hypocretin-1 across 24 h and in response to food restriction in rats. Hypocretin-1 levels were high during the dark period when animals were active, but(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Magnifying endoscopy combined with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI) has been used for differential diagnosis of various focal lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate ME-NBI criteria for cancer diagnosis in superficial depressed gastric lesions in comparison to conventional white light endoscopy (WLE). PATIENTS AND METHODS ME-NBI and(More)