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Rods and cones subserve mouse vision over a 100 million-fold range of light intensity (-6 to 2 log cd m(-2)). Rod pathways tune vision to the temporal frequency of stimuli (peak, 0.75 Hz) and cone pathways to their speed (peak, approximately 12 degrees/s). Both pathways tune vision to the spatial components of stimuli (0.064-0.128 cycles/degree). The(More)
Progression of retinal degeneration in a mouse model was studied in vivo with high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Imaging in 3D with high depth resolution (<3 mum), SD-OCT resolved all the major layers of the retina of control C57BL/6J mice. Images of transgenic mice having a null mutation of the rhodopsin gene revealed(More)
To estimate the extent of axonal growth in various areas of the cerebral cortex, we measured the amount of GAP-43 mRNA in the cerebral cortex of developing macaque monkeys. In four areas, i.e., the prefrontal area (FD delta), the temporal association area (TE), the primary somatosensory area (PC), and the primary visual area (OC), the amount of GAP-43 mRNA(More)
PURPOSE Accumulation of free opsin by mutations in rhodopsin or insufficiencies in the visual cycle can lead to retinal degeneration. Free opsin activates phototransduction; however, the link between constitutive activation and retinal degeneration is unclear. In this study, the photoresponses of Xenopus rods rendered constitutively active by vitamin A(More)
Loss of cone function in the central retina is a pivotal event in the development of severe vision impairment for many prevalent blinding diseases. Complete achromatopsia is a genetic defect resulting in cone vision loss in 1 in 30,000 individuals. Using adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy, we show that it is possible to target cones and rescue both(More)
Effects of anesthesia on the blood glucose of C57/BL6J mice were evaluated under conditions commonly used for testing retinal sensitivity with electroretinographic (ERG) recordings. We evaluated the effects of four anesthetics: nembutal (50 mg/kg), pentothal (100 mg/kg), avertin (240 mg/kg), and ketamine/xylazine (100 mg/kg) using saline as control. We(More)
The retinal degeneration 10 (rd10) mouse is a well-characterized model of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP), which carries a spontaneous mutation in the β subunit of rod cGMP-phosphodiesterase (PDEβ). Rd10 mouse exhibits photoreceptor dysfunction and rapid rod photoreceptor degeneration followed by cone degeneration and remodeling of the inner(More)
Newts possess the ability to regenerate a functional retina after complete removal of the original retina. We performed immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses of newt retinas at different stages of regeneration by using an antibody against a gap junction channel protein, connexin43 (Cx43). The specificity of the antibody was shown on immunoblots as(More)
Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3) are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy(More)
The retina is among the most metabolically active tissues in the body, requiring a constant supply of blood glucose to sustain function. We assessed the impact of low blood glucose on the vision of C57BL/6J mice rendered hypoglycemic by a null mutation of the glucagon receptor gene, Gcgr. Metabolic stress from moderate hypoglycemia led to late-onset loss of(More)