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Rods and cones subserve mouse vision over a 100 million-fold range of light intensity (-6 to 2 log cd m(-2)). Rod pathways tune vision to the temporal frequency of stimuli (peak, 0.75 Hz) and cone pathways to their speed (peak, approximately 12 degrees/s). Both pathways tune vision to the spatial components of stimuli (0.064-0.128 cycles/degree). The(More)
Mutations in GUCY2D are associated with recessive Leber congenital amaurosis-1 (LCA1). GUCY2D encodes photoreceptor-specific, retinal guanylate cyclase-1 (RetGC1). Reports of retinal degeneration in LCA1 are conflicting; some describe no obvious degeneration and others report loss of both rods and cones. Proof of concept studies in models representing the(More)
Progression of retinal degeneration in a mouse model was studied in vivo with high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Imaging in 3D with high depth resolution (<3 mum), SD-OCT resolved all the major layers of the retina of control C57BL/6J mice. Images of transgenic mice having a null mutation of the rhodopsin gene revealed(More)
PURPOSE Accumulation of free opsin by mutations in rhodopsin or insufficiencies in the visual cycle can lead to retinal degeneration. Free opsin activates phototransduction; however, the link between constitutive activation and retinal degeneration is unclear. In this study, the photoresponses of Xenopus rods rendered constitutively active by vitamin A(More)
Effects of anesthesia on the blood glucose of C57/BL6J mice were evaluated under conditions commonly used for testing retinal sensitivity with electroretinographic (ERG) recordings. We evaluated the effects of four anesthetics: nembutal (50 mg/kg), pentothal (100 mg/kg), avertin (240 mg/kg), and ketamine/xylazine (100 mg/kg) using saline as control. We(More)
Loss of cone function in the central retina is a pivotal event in the development of severe vision impairment for many prevalent blinding diseases. Complete achromatopsia is a genetic defect resulting in cone vision loss in 1 in 30,000 individuals. Using adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy, we show that it is possible to target cones and rescue both(More)
The retinal degeneration 10 (rd10) mouse is a well-characterized model of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP), which carries a spontaneous mutation in the β subunit of rod cGMP-phosphodiesterase (PDEβ). Rd10 mouse exhibits photoreceptor dysfunction and rapid rod photoreceptor degeneration followed by cone degeneration and remodeling of the inner(More)
To test whether fast-acting, self-complimentary (sc), adeno-associated virus-mediated RPE65 expression prevents cone degeneration and/or restores cone function, we studied two mouse lines: the Rpe65-deficient rd12 mouse and the Rpe65-deficient, rhodopsin null ('that is, cone function-only') Rpe65(-/-)::Rho(-/-) mouse. scAAV5 expressing RPE65 was injected(More)
Newts possess the ability to regenerate a functional retina after complete removal of the original retina. We performed immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses of newt retinas at different stages of regeneration by using an antibody against a gap junction channel protein, connexin43 (Cx43). The specificity of the antibody was shown on immunoblots as(More)
BACKGROUND Recessive mutations in guanylate cyclase-1 (Gucy2d) are associated with severe, early onset Leber congenital amaurosis-1(LCA1). Gucy2d encodes guanylate cyclase (GC1) is expressed in photoreceptor outer segment membranes and produces cGMP in these cells. LCA1 patients present in infancy with severely impaired vision and extinguished(More)