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Previous studies have shown that Müller glia are closely related to retinal progenitors; these two cell types express many of the same genes and after damage to the retina, Müller glia can serve as a source for new neurons, particularly in non-mammalian vertebrates. We investigated the period of postnatal retinal development when progenitors are(More)
Non-mammalian vertebrates have a robust ability to regenerate injured retinal neurons from Müller glia (MG) that activate the gene encoding the proneural factor Achaete-scute homolog 1 (Ascl1; also known as Mash1 in mammals) and de-differentiate into progenitor cells. By contrast, mammalian MG have a limited regenerative response and fail to upregulate(More)
Members of the interleukin-6 cytokine family, including leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), signal through gp130. The neuroprotective role of gp130 activation has been widely demonstrated in both CNS and PNS, but the mechanism by which this is accomplished is not well established. We investigated temporal and cell-specific activation of signaling pathways(More)
Müller glial cells are the source of retinal regeneration in fish and birds; although this process is efficient in fish, it is less so in birds and very limited in mammals. It has been proposed that factors necessary for providing neurogenic competence to Müller glia in fish and birds after retinal injury are not expressed in mammals. One such factor, the(More)
Müller glia, the major type of glia in the retina, are mitotically quiescent under normal conditions, though they can be stimulated to proliferate in some pathological states. Among these stimuli, EGF is known to be a potent mitogen for Müller glia. However, the signaling pathways required for EGF-mediated proliferation of Müller glia are not clearly(More)
Müller glia are normally mitotically quiescent cells, but in certain pathological states they can re-enter the mitotic cell cycle. While several cell cycle regulators have been shown to be important in this process, a role for the tumor suppressor, p53, has not been demonstrated. Here, we investigated a role for p53 in limiting the ability of Müller glia to(More)
Members of IL-6 family cytokines, such as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), activate the common signal-transducing receptor gp130. We and others have previously shown that application of exogenous gp130 ligands promotes photoreceptor survival in light-induced and inherited retinal degeneration in animal models. While(More)
PURPOSE In an effort to generate inducible RPE-specific Cre mice using a 3.0-kb human vitelliform macular dystrophy-2 (VMD2) promoter, we identified a mouse line with unanticipated Cre activity in the neural retina, including Müller glial cells. Müller cells play important roles in the function and maintenance of the retina, and this mouse line would be(More)
A combined method is described for the determination of various metabolites from a single tissue sample of the brain. It comprises a quick inactivation of cerebral enzymes by microwave irradiation, easy separation of the desired brain regions, and perchloric acid extraction of tissue substances, which are assayed either by specific enzymatic techniques or(More)
Retinal degenerations are a class of neurodegenerative disorders that ultimately lead to blindness due to the death of retinal photoreceptors. In most cases, death is the result of long-term exposure to environmental, inflammatory, and genetic insults. In age-related macular degeneration, significant vision loss may take up to 70-80 years to develop. The(More)