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In response to DNA damage, mammalian cells prevent cell cycle progression through the control of critical cell cycle regulators. A human gene was identified that encodes the protein Chk1, a homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Chk1 protein kinase, which is required for the DNA damage checkpoint. Human Chk1 protein was modified in response to DNA damage.(More)
In response to DNA damage, cells activate checkpoint pathways that prevent cell cycle progression. In fission yeast and mammals, mitotic arrest in response to DNA damage requires inhibitory Cdk phosphorylation regulated by Chk1. This study indicates that Chk1 is required for function of the DNA damage checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae but acts through(More)
Mutants of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) homolog MEC1/SAD3/ESR1 were identified that could live only if the RAD53/SAD1 checkpoint kinase was overproduced. MEC1 and a structurally related gene, TEL1, have overlapping functions in response to DNA damage and replication blocks that in mutants can be provided by overproduction(More)
Most eukaryotic cells produce proteins with relative molecular masses in the range of 100,000 to 110,000 after exposure to high temperatures. These proteins have been studied only in yeast and mammalian cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, heat-shock protein hsp104 is vital for tolerance to heat, ethanol and other stresses. The mammalian hsp110 protein is(More)
Binding proteins for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) IGF-I and IGF-II, known as IGFBPs, control the distribution, function and activity of IGFs in various cell tissues and body fluids. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is known to modulate the stimulatory effects of IGFs and is the major IGF-binding protein in bone tissue. We have(More)
Heat-shock proteins (hsps) are induced by many types of stress. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a mutation in the HSP104 gene, a member of the highly conserved hsp100 gene family, reduces the ability of log-phase fermenting cells to withstand high temperatures after mild, conditioning pretreatments. Here, we examine the expression of hsp104 and its importance(More)
In response to DNA damage and replication blocks, yeast cells arrest at distinct points in the cell cycle and induce the transcription of genes whose products facilitate DNA repair. Examination of the inducibility of RNR3 in response to UV damage has revealed that the various checkpoint genes can be arranged in a pathway consistent with their requirement to(More)
The phenotypes of single Hsp104 and Hsp70 mutants of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae provide no clue that these proteins are functionally related. Mutation of the HSP104 gene severely reduces the ability of cells to survive short exposures to extreme temperatures (thermotolerance) but has no effect on growth rates. On the other hand, mutations in(More)
The polo-like kinases (Plks) are a family of conserved serine/threonine kinases that play a critical role in the normal progression of cells through mitosis. The Plk3 serine/threonine kinase is a mammalian member of this family. Overexpression of Plk3 in mammalian cells suppresses proliferation and inhibits colony formation. Subsequent analysis demonstrated(More)