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Specific patterns of neuronal firing induce changes in synaptic strength that may contribute to learning and memory. If the postsynaptic NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors are blocked, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission and the learning of spatial information are prevented. The NMDA receptor can bind a(More)
Cytokinesis ensures the successful completion of the cell cycle and distribution of chromosomes, organelles, and cytoplasm between daughter cells. It is accomplished by formation and constriction of an actomyosin contractile ring that drives the progression of a cleavage furrow. Microinjection experiments and in vitro transfection assays have suggested a(More)
IL-17 is a newly described, T cell-derived cytokine with ill-defined physiologic properties. As such, we examined the release of proinflammatory mediators by human macrophages in response to recombinant human (rh) IL-17. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha expression and synthesis were up-regulated by rhIL-17 in a dose (ED50 was 50 +/- 9 ng/ml)- and time-dependent(More)
Here we describe development of transgenic elite rice lines expressing a Bt fusion gene derived from cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) under the control of rice actinI promoter. The lines used in the study were indica CMS restorer line of Minghui 63 and its derived hybrid rice Shanyou 63. The level of Bt fusion protein CryIA(b)/CryIA(c) detected in Minghui 63 (T51-1)(More)
Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are transporters that are important for thermogenesis. The net result of their activity is the exothermic movement of protons through the inner mitochondrial membrane, uncoupled from ATP synthesis. We have cloned a third member of the UCP family, UCP3. UCP3 is expressed at high levels in muscle and rodent brown(More)
Motors generating mechanical force, powered by the hydrolysis of ATP, translocate double-stranded DNA into preformed capsids (proheads) of bacterial viruses and certain animal viruses. Here we describe the motor that packages the double-stranded DNA of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage phi29 into a precursor capsid. We determined the structure of the(More)
BCL-6, a transcriptional repressor frequently translocated in lymphomas, regulates germinal center B cell differentiation and inflammation. DNA microarray screening identified genes repressed by BCL-6, including many lymphocyte activation genes, suggesting that BCL-6 modulates B cell receptor signals. BCL-6 repression of two chemokine genes, MIP-1alpha and(More)
BACKGROUND In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), combination antiretroviral therapy can result in sustained suppression of plasma levels of the virus. However, replication-competent virus can still be recovered from latently infected resting memory CD4 lymphocytes; this finding raises serious doubts about whether antiviral(More)
Field cancerization predisposes the upper aerodigestive tract mucosa to the formation of multiple primary tumors, when exposed to environmental carcinogens. Up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor occurs early in squamous cell carcinogenesis and is critical for the loss of growth control in a variety of human cancers, including head and neck(More)
To determine the role of immune/inflammatory factors in dopaminergic cell degeneration in parkinsonian substantia nigra, we assayed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive immunoreactive neuronal numbers with stereologic techniques and CD11b-positive immunoreactive microglial profiles following 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection into ipsilateral striatum of(More)