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Vision requires the generation of cone and rod photoreceptors that function in daylight and dim light, respectively. The neural retina leucine zipper factor (NRL) transcription factor critically controls photoreceptor fates as it stimulates rod differentiation and suppresses cone differentiation. However, the controls over NRL induction that balance rod and(More)
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease is caused by mutations in PKHD1, which encodes the membrane-associated receptor-like protein fibrocystin/polyductin (FPC). FPC associates with the primary cilia of epithelial cells and co-localizes with the Pkd2 gene product polycystin-2 (PC2), suggesting that these two proteins may function in a common(More)
Loss of polycystin-2 (PC2) in mice (Pkd2(-/-)) results in total body edema, focal hemorrhage, structural cardiac defects, abnormal left-right axis, hepatorenal and pancreatic cysts, and embryonic lethality. The molecular mechanisms by which loss of PC2 leads to these phenotypes remain unknown. We generated a model to allow targeted Pkd2 inactivation using(More)
People of African ancestry carrying certain APOL1 mutant alleles are at elevated risk of developing renal diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying APOL1-associated renal diseases are unknown. Because the APOL1 gene is unique to humans and some primates, new animal models are needed to understand the function of APOL1 in vivo We generated transgenic(More)
Amacrine and horizontal interneurons integrate visual information as it is relayed through the retina from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells. The early steps that generate these interneuron networks remain unclear. Here we show that a distinct retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor β1 (RORβ1) isoform encoded by the retinoid-related orphan nuclear(More)
The Bicaudal-C (Bic-C) gene was originally discovered in Drosophila melanogaster. The gene product Bic-C is thought to serve as an RNA-binding molecule targeting diverse proteins at the post-transcriptional level. Recent research has shown this gene to be conserved in many species, from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. Disruption of this protein can(More)
In this paper one type of the security problem of DoS (Denial of Service) is studied and transformed to check the robustness of a multiple components system. The network components like attackers, normal clients and the network devices are modeled as implementations of the testing system. And by evaluating the system's robustness, the potential design(More)