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This paper presents the status of land-surface temperature (LST) standard products retrieved from Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Based on estimates of the channel-dependence error and noise equivalent temperature difference (NEDT) and the calibration accuracy of MODIS thermal – infrared data, the(More)
We consider a single-machine scheduling problem with periodic maintenance activities. Although the scheduling problem with maintenance has attracted researchers' attention, most of past studies considered only one maintenance period. In this research several maintenance periods are considered where each maintenance activity is scheduled after a periodic(More)
Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a key role in the neuropathogenesis of HIV infection. HIV proteins (gp120, Tat) and proinflammatory cytokines can trigger the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in DNA and RNA lesions. Among all the lesions induced by ROS, one of the most abundant lesions in DNA and RNA is(More)
Hormesis is a phenomenon of biphasic dose response characterized by exhibiting stimulatory or beneficial effects at low doses and inhibitory or toxic effects at high doses. Increasing numbers of chemicals of various types have been shown to induce apparent hormetic effect on cancer cells. However, the underlying significance and mechanisms remain to be(More)
Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), an integral component of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), was widely used to inhibit HIV replication. Long-term exposure to NRTIs can result in mitochondrial toxicity which manifests as lipoatrophy, lactic acidosis, cardiomyopathy and myopathy, as well as polyneuropathy. But the(More)
Although combined antiretroviral therapy has significantly improved the prognosis of HIV-1 infected patients and decreased the incidence of HIV-1 associated dementia, the cumulative prevalence of this disease, in particular, mild or asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, has not decreased. Thus, in addition to active antiretroviral therapy, the search for(More)
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), characterized by cognitive, motor, and behavioral abnormalities, are common among people living with HIV and AIDS. In combined antiretroviral therapy era in Western countries, nearly 40% of HIV-infected patients continue to suffer from HAND, mainly with mild or asymptomatic cognitive impairment. However, the(More)
The genetic evolution of HIV-1 in the central nervous system (CNS) is different from that in peripheral tissues. We analyzed 121 clonal sequences of the V3–V5 regions of the env gene generated from paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples from nine chronically infected patients (four with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) and five(More)