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Two nuclear genes, Nic1 and Nic2, regulate nicotine levels in tobacco. nic1 and nic2 are semidominant mutations in Burley 21 that reduce leaf nicotine levels and the activities of multiple enzymes in the nicotine pathway and simultaneously increase polyamine levels in cultured roots. Cultured roots homozygous for both mutations were used to isolate two(More)
Many streptomycetes produce extracellular gamma-butyrolactones. In several cases, these have been shown to act as signals for the onset of antibiotic production. Synthesis of these molecules appears to require a member of the AfsA family of proteins (AfsA is required for A-factor synthesis of the gamma-butyrolactone A-factor and consequently for(More)
The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB, http://rapdb.dna.affrc.go.jp/) has been providing a comprehensive set of gene annotations for the genome sequence of rice, Oryza sativa (japonica group) cv. Nipponbare. Since the first release in 2005, RAP-DB has been updated several times along with the genome assembly updates. Here, we present our newest(More)
To evaluate the physiological significance of cyclic electron flow around photosystem (PS) I, we used a reverse genetic approach to focus on 11 chloroplast genes that encode homologs of mitochondrial complex I subunits (ndhA-K). Since their discovery, the exact function of the respiratory components in plant chloroplasts has been a matter of discussion. We(More)
Three mammalian hyaluronan synthase genes, HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3, have recently been cloned. In this study, we characterized and compared the enzymatic properties of these three HAS proteins. Expression of any of these genes in COS-1 cells or rat 3Y1 fibroblasts yielded de novo formation of a hyaluronan coat. The pericellular coats formed by HAS1(More)
Plant alkaloids, one of the largest groups of natural products, provide many pharmacologically active compounds. Several genes in the biosynthetic pathways for scopolamine, nicotine, and berberine have been cloned, making the metabolic engineering of these alkaloids possible. Expression of two branching-point enzymes was engineered: putrescine(More)
Roots of several solanaceous plants produce anticholinergic alkaloids, hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Hyoscyamine 6 beta-hydroxylase, a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (EC, catalyzes hydroxylation of hyoscyamine in the biosynthetic pathway leading to scopolamine. We report here on the isolation of cDNA clones encoding the hydroxylase from a(More)
BACKGROUND Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is an important regulator of vascular remodeling and is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. A T-->C transition at nucleotide 29 of the TGF-beta1 gene results in a Leu-->Pro substitution at amino acid 10 of the signal peptide. We have now examined a possible association of TGF-beta1 genotype(More)
Nicotine alkaloids are synthesized in the root of Nicotiana species, and their synthesis increases after insect attack, wounding and jasmonate treatment of the leaf. Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) catalyzes the first committed step in nicotine biosynthesis. The expression patterns of the three Nicotiana sylvestris PMT genes (NsPMT1, NsPMT2, and(More)
Merosin is the predominant laminin isoform in the basal lamina of striated muscle and peripheral nerve, and consists of M, B1 or S, and B2 chains. Here we have demonstrated that merosin is a native ligand for alpha-dystroglycan, an extracellular component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. We have also mapped the mouse M chain gene, Lamm, to the same(More)