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OBJECTIVES Complex interactions of vaginal microorganisms with the genital tract epithelium shape mucosal innate immunity, which holds the key to sexual and reproductive health. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a microbiome-disturbance syndrome prevalent in reproductive-age women, occurs commonly in concert with trichomoniasis, and both are associated with(More)
Wide-spread protozoan parasites carry endosymbiotic dsRNA viruses with uncharted implications to the human host. Among them, Trichomonas vaginalis, a parasite adapted to the human genitourinary tract, infects globally ∼250 million each year rendering them more susceptible to devastating pregnancy complications (especially preterm birth), HIV infection and(More)
RNA ligases participate in repair, splicing and editing pathways that either reseal broken RNAs or alter their primary structure. Here, we report the characterization of an RNA ligase from the thermophilic archaeon, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. The 381-amino acid Methanobacterium RNA ligase (MthRnl) catalyzes intramolecular ligation of 5'-PO(4)(More)
The flagellated protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is an obligate human genitourinary parasite and the most frequent cause of sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Most clinical isolates of T. vaginalis are persistently infected with one or more double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses from the genus Trichomonasvirus, family Totiviridae, which appear to influence(More)
Phosphorylation of the GluR1 subunit of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor has been implicated in the regulation of the receptor channel. We investigated the effects of transient global ischemia in rats on phosphorylation of the GluR1 subunit in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3/dentate gyrus. Transient ischemia induced an increase(More)
UNLABELLED Eukaryal taxa differ with respect to the structure and mechanism of the RNA triphosphatase (RTPase) component of the mRNA capping apparatus. Protozoa, fungi, and certain DNA viruses have a metal-dependent RTPase that belongs to the triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme (TTM) superfamily. Because the structures, active sites, and chemical mechanisms(More)
UNLABELLED Giardia lamblia virus (GLV) is a small, nonenveloped, nonsegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus infecting Giardia lamblia, the most common protozoan pathogen of the human intestine and a major agent of waterborne diarrheal disease worldwide. GLV (genus Giardiavirus) is a member of family Totiviridae, along with several other groups of(More)
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