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The 5' end of the flavivirus plus-sense RNA genome contains a type 1 cap (m(7)GpppAmG), followed by a conserved stem-loop structure. We report that nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) from four serocomplexes of flaviviruses specifically methylates the cap through recognition of the 5' terminus of viral RNA. Distinct RNA elements are required for the methylations(More)
RNA ligases participate in repair, splicing and editing pathways that either reseal broken RNAs or alter their primary structure. Here, we report the characterization of an RNA ligase from the thermophilic archaeon, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. The 381-amino acid Methanobacterium RNA ligase (MthRnl) catalyzes intramolecular ligation of 5'-PO(4)(More)
Wide-spread protozoan parasites carry endosymbiotic dsRNA viruses with uncharted implications to the human host. Among them, Trichomonas vaginalis, a parasite adapted to the human genitourinary tract, infects globally ∼250 million each year rendering them more susceptible to devastating pregnancy complications (especially preterm birth), HIV infection and(More)
OBJECTIVES Complex interactions of vaginal microorganisms with the genital tract epithelium shape mucosal innate immunity, which holds the key to sexual and reproductive health. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a microbiome-disturbance syndrome prevalent in reproductive-age women, occurs commonly in concert with trichomoniasis, and both are associated with(More)
UNLABELLED Giardia lamblia virus (GLV) is a small, nonenveloped, nonsegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus infecting Giardia lamblia, the most common protozoan pathogen of the human intestine and a major agent of waterborne diarrheal disease worldwide. GLV (genus Giardiavirus) is a member of family Totiviridae, along with several other groups of(More)
The 5' end of kinetoplastid mRNA possesses a hypermethylated cap 4 structure, which is derived from standard m7GpppN (cap 0) with additional methylations at seven sites within the first four nucleosides on the spliced leader RNA. In addition to TbCe1 guanylyltransferase and TbCmt1 (guanine N-7) methyltransferase, Trypanosoma brucei encodes a second cap 0(More)
Recent advances in biosensing technologies present great potential for medical diagnostics, thus improving clinical decisions. However, creating a label-free general sensing platform capable of detecting multiple biotargets in various clinical specimens over a wide dynamic range, without lengthy sample-processing steps, remains a considerable challenge. In(More)
The flagellated protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is an obligate human genitourinary parasite and the most frequent cause of sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Most clinical isolates of T. vaginalis are persistently infected with one or more double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses from the genus Trichomonasvirus, family Totiviridae, which appear to influence(More)
Encapsidated dsRNA viruses, most of which are nonenveloped, infect a wide variety of hosts, from bacteria to vertebrates, and are currently grouped into 9 families comprising 33 genera. Given this range, it is not surprising that substantial diversity is seen in their transmission strategies and cell-entry machineries. One interesting set of recent findings(More)
UNLABELLED Eukaryal taxa differ with respect to the structure and mechanism of the RNA triphosphatase (RTPase) component of the mRNA capping apparatus. Protozoa, fungi, and certain DNA viruses have a metal-dependent RTPase that belongs to the triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme (TTM) superfamily. Because the structures, active sites, and chemical mechanisms(More)
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