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RNA silencing is a broadly conserved machinery and is involved in many biological events. Small RNAs are key molecules in RNA silencing pathway that guide sequence-specific gene regulations and chromatin modifications. The silencing machinery works as an anti-viral defense in virus-infected plants. It is generally accepted that virus-specific small(More)
The sequence profiles of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in Arabidopsis infected with the crucifer tobamovirus tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-Cg were determined by using a small RNA cloning technique. The majority of TMV-derived siRNAs were 21 nt in length. The size of the most abundant endogenous small RNAs in TMV-infected plants was 21 nt, whilst in(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are sequence-specific negative regulators of gene expression generated by DICER-LIKE1 (DCL1) with the assistance of a double-stranded RNA-binding protein, HYPONASTIC LEAVES1 (HYL1), in Arabidopsis. To achieve a better understanding of miRNA biogenesis, we isolated hyl1 suppressors. Our genetic screening identified a novel semidominant(More)
Small RNAs are key molecules in RNA silencing pathways that exert sequence-specific regulation of gene expression and chromatin modifications in many eukaryotes. In plants, endogenous small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) play an important role in biological processes such as development and stress(More)
It has been demonstrated that the subcellular location of Tobamovirus movement protein (MP) which was fused with green fluorescent protein (MP:GFP) changed during the infection process. However, the intracellular route through which MP is transported and its biological meaning are still obscure. Treatment with brefeldin A (BFA), which disrupts ER-to-Golgi(More)
A method for the numerical assessment of the foliar injury caused by the photochemical oxidant, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), was devised, using three injury indices: fresh weight (FW) loss, decreased photosynthetic pigment content, and increased ion leakage, which can be measured using the same leaves. The injury indices clearly indicated a larger number of(More)
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