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To study microglial/macrophage infiltration, a cuprizone-induced model for demyelination in C57BL/6 mice was established. Cuprizone is known to cause demyelination in Swiss mice, however, cuprizone-induced demyelination in C57BL/6 mice has not been previously described. Induction of demyelination in C57BL/6 mice enables examination of the function of(More)
Rho small GTPase regulates cell morphology, adhesion and cytokinesis through the actin cytoskeleton. We have identified a protein, p140mDia, as a downstream effector of Rho. It is a mammalian homolog of Drosophila diaphanous, a protein required for cytokinesis, and belongs to a family of formin-related proteins containing repetitive polyproline stretches.(More)
Intrinsic circuit of the superior colliculus (SC), in particular the pathway from the optic tract (OT) to neurons in the intermediate layer (SGI), was investigated by whole-cell patch-clamp recording in slice preparations obtained from 17- to 24-d-old rats. Stimulation of the OT induced monosynaptic EPSPs in neurons in the superficial gray layer (SGS) and(More)
In contrast to findings in the cat, it recently has been shown that disynaptic pyramidal EPSPs only rarely are observed in forelimb motoneurons of the macaque monkey in the intact spinal cord or after a corticospinal transection in C(5). This finding has been taken to indicate that the disynaptic pyramidal excitatory pathway via C(3)-C(4) propriospinal(More)
BACKGROUND Antibody-mediated and cytotoxic T cell-mediated pathogenicity have been implicated as the autoimmune pathophysiologic mechanisms in Rasmussen's encephalitis. METHODS The authors investigated autoantibodies against the NMDA glutamate receptor (GluR) epsilon2 subunit and their epitopes in serum and CSF samples from 15 patients with chronic(More)
Inhibitory neurons play important roles in a number of brain functions. They are composed of GABAergic neurons and glycinergic neurons, and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) is specifically expressed in these neurons. Since the inhibitory neurons are scattered around in the CNS, it is difficult to identify these cells in living brain preparations. The(More)
To begin characterizing the neural elements underlying the dynamic properties of local circuits in the mammalian superior colliculus (SC), electrophysiological and morphological properties of individual neurons in the intermediate layer [stratum griseum intermediale (SGI)] were investigated using whole cell patch-clamp recording and intracellular staining(More)
To study synthesis, storage, and secretion of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the heart, we have measured BNP mRNA and BNP concentrations in the hearts of Wistar-Kyoto rats and also have investigated its secretion from the isolated perfused heart. The atrium expressed the BNP gene at a high level, and a considerable amount of BNP mRNA also was present in(More)
Development of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is a pathological hallmark in various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, we identified a granular tau oligomer having a pre-filamentous structure. To determine the role of this oligomer in NFT formation, we quantified the amount of granular tau oligomer in 21 frontal cortex(More)
AIMS MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate translational repression of target mRNAs. Accumulating evidence indicates that various miRNAs, expressed in a spatially and temporally controlled that manner in the brain plays a key role in neuronal development. However, at present, the pathological implication of aberrant miRNA expression in(More)