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Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide which is up-regulated following neuronal axotomy or inflammation. One subtype of GAL receptor (GalR2) is reported to be expressed in the brain's immune cell population, microglia. In the present study, we investigated the effect of GAL on microglial migration and compared the mechanism with that of bradykinin (BK). GAL(More)
Bradykinin (BK) is produced and acts at the site of injury and inflammation. In the CNS, migration of microglia toward the lesion site plays an important role pathologically. In the present study, we investigated the effect of BK on microglial migration. Increased motility of cultured microglia was mimicked by B1 receptor agonists and markedly inhibited by(More)
BACKGROUND Cancer cells utilise the glycolytic pathway even when adequate oxygen is present, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. We examined whether this system is operative in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and whether glycolysis inhibition is a potential therapeutic modality. METHODS The MM cells were purified from 59 patients using(More)
Microglia express AMPA (α-amino-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate)-type of glutamate (Glu) receptors (AMPAR), which are highly Ca(2+) impermeable due to the expression of GluA2. However, the functional importance of AMPAR in microglia remains to be investigated, especially under pathological conditions. As low expression of GluA2 was reported in some(More)
We previously demonstrated that colony stimulating factor (CSF)-producing cell lines co-produce interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 in addition to CSFs. In the present study, we examined the role of IL-1 production in three human tumour cell lines producing granulocyte (G)-CSF, IL-1 and IL-6. Addition of anti-human IL-1 alpha antiserum to the culture caused a(More)
L-tri-iodothyronine (3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine; T3) is an active form of the thyroid hormone (TH) essential for the development and function of the CNS. Though nongenomic effect of TH, its plasma membrane-bound receptor, and its signaling has been identified, precise function in each cell type of the CNS remained to be investigated. Clearance of cell debris(More)
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