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In patients routinely treated with metoprolol, influences of CYP2D6 genotype on the response of heart rate to isoproterenol (IP) were studied at its peak and trough concentrations and were compared with those of bisoprolol. In 72 patients treated with metoprolol or bisoprolol, CYP2D6 genotype (ie, CYP2D6*1, *2, *4, *5, *10, and *14) was determined. No(More)
Purpose. Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressive agent, has poor and variable bioavailability following oral administration in clinical use. We investigated the contribution of intestinal metabolism to the first pass effect of tacrolimus in rats. Methods. Tacrolimus was administered intravenously, intraportally or intraintestinally to rats. Blood samples were(More)
Peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2 transport numerous compounds including small peptides, peptide-like drugs and nonpeptidic compounds such as valacyclovir. PEPT1 and PEPT2 show low and high affinity for most substrates, respectively, but β-lactam antibiotics without an α-amino group are the only known substrates that prefer PEPT1 to PEPT2. The aim of(More)
To investigate the mechanism responsible for the increased bioavailability of propranolol in bilateral ureter-ligated (BUL) rats, the intestinal absorption and hepatic extraction of propranolol and metoprolol were evaluated. The initial absorption rate of these drugs after intra-intestinal administration was only slightly increased in the BUL rats, whereas(More)
Purpose. Peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2 differ substantiallyin their substrate affinity and recognition. The aim of this study is todefine the structural domains which influence the functionalcharacteristics of both transporters Methods. Two kinds of chimeric peptide transporters (PEPT-N1C2and PEPT-N2C1) were constructed, and their functional(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacogenetic variability in the disposition of carvedilol in the Japanese population. Five or 10 mg of carvedilol was orally administered to 54 healthy Japanese subjects (22-44 years old), and blood samples were taken at 2 and 6 h after dosing. We determined the polymorphic alleles of CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19,(More)
This study was performed to investigate the effect of CYP2D6*10 on the pharmacokinetics of R- and S-carvedilol in healthy Japanese volunteers. Five or 10 mg of carvedilol was orally administered to 23 subjects (22-44 years old), and blood samples were taken at 2 and 6 h after dosing. We determined the polymorphic alleles of CYP2D6 in each subject. The whole(More)
Two research groups have reported the effect of genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 on the pharmacokinetic parameters of phenytoin in Japanese epileptic patients. We measured the plasma phenytoin concentrations at steady-state in 20 routinely treated Japanese patients, and evaluated the usefulness of genotyping the CYP2C subfamily in predicting(More)
To evaluate an in vitro model suitable for investigating intestinal first-pass drug metabolism, CYP3A4 and MDR1 mRNA induction by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (VD3) was examined in two human intestinal cell lines, Caco-2 and LS180, under various culture conditions. CYP3A4 mRNA expression was induced by 100 nM VD3 at levels between 234-549 times above(More)
The population pharmacokinetic parameters of mizoribine in healthy subjects were estimated using a nonlinear mixed effects model (NONMEM) program. Pharmacokinetic data for population analysis were obtained in the previous study, in which 24 healthy Caucasian male subjects participated in a single-dose (3, 6, 9, 12 mg/kg) study, and 12 subjects participated(More)