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BACKGROUND Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are widely found in the environment. Estrogen-like activity is attributed to EDCs, such as bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol AF (BPAF), and zearalenone (Zea), but mechanisms of action and diversity of effects are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES We used in vitro models to evaluate the mechanistic actions of BPA,(More)
BACKGROUND Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) influence the activity of estrogen receptors (ERs) and alter the function of the endocrine system. However, the diversity of EDC effects and mechanisms of action are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES We examined the agonistic activity of EDCs through ERα and ERβ. We also investigated the effects of EDCs on(More)
BACKGROUND Diarylheptanoids isolated from Curcuma comosa Roxb. have been recently identified as phyto estrogens. However, the mechanism underlying their actions has not yet been identified. OBJECTIVES We characterized the estrogenic activity of three active naturally occurring diarylheptanoids both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS We characterized(More)
The serum estrogen surge in the uterus triggers precisely-timed physiological and biochemical responses required establishing and maintaining pregnancy. Previous reports have shown that consumption of phytoestrogen-containing plants may disrupt the precise control of pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of phytoestrogens in the uterus, we screened for(More)
BACKGROUND Diarylheptanoid (D3) isolated from the medicinal plant, Curcuma comosa, has estrogenic activity. OBJECTIVE We aimed to elucidate the mechanism(s) of D3 action and compare it with that of 17β-estradiol (E2) using both in vitro and in vivo uterine models. METHODS We used human uterine (Ishikawa) cells to determine the estrogenic action of D3 on(More)
ERα has a ligand-dependent transactivation function in the ligand binding domain of ERα C terminus (AF-2) and a ligand-independent activation function in the N terminus (AF-1). It is still not fully understood how AF-1 and AF-2 activities are regulated cooperatively by ligands. To evaluate the AF-1 involvement in the estrogenic activities of various(More)
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