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There are several brain regions that have been implicated in the control of motivated behavior and whose disruption leads to the pathophysiology observed in major psychiatric disorders. These systems include the ventral hippocampus, which is involved in context and focus on tasks, the amygdala, which mediates emotional behavior, and the prefrontal cortex,(More)
Goal-directed behavior is believed to involve interactions of prefrontal cortical and limbic inputs in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and their modulation by mesolimbic dopamine (DA) seems to be of primary importance in NAcc function. Using in vivo electrophysiological recordings simultaneously with DA system manipulation in rats, we show that tonic and(More)
Dopamine has undergone extensive investigation due to its known involvement in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. In particular, studies into pathological conditions have focused on the roles of high amplitude, phasically evoked dopamine release in regions such as the prefrontal cortex and striatum. However, research has shown that dopamine(More)
The nucleus accumbens regulates goal-directed behaviors by integrating information from limbic structures and the prefrontal cortex. Here, we review recent studies in an attempt to provide an integrated view of the control of information processing in the nucleus accumbens in terms of the regulation of goal-directed behaviors and how disruption of these(More)
The prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus exhibit converging projections to the nucleus accumbens and have functional reciprocal connections via indirect pathways. As a result, information processing between these structures is likely to be bidirectional. Using evoked potential measures, we examined the interactions of these inputs on synaptic plasticity(More)
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) mediates an assortment of cognitive functions including working memory, behavioral flexibility, attention, and future planning. Unlike the hippocampus, where induction of synaptic plasticity in the network is well-documented in relation to long-term memory, cognitive functions mediated by the PFC have been thought to be independent(More)
Chronic stress causes various detrimental effects including cognitive and affective dysfunctions. Given the recent findings emphasizing the importance of information processing between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and limbic structures on cognitive and affective functions, impairments of these functions caused by chronic stress may be associated with(More)
Chronic stress causes deficits in cognitive function including working memory, for which transmission of such catecholamines as dopamine and noradrenaline transmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are crucial. Since catecholamine synthesis depends on the rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), TH is thought to play an important role in PFC(More)
The dopamine system has been a subject of intense investigation due to its role in a number of normal functions and its disruption in pathological conditions. Thus, the dopamine system has been shown to play a major role in cognitive, affective, and motor functions, and its disruption has been proposed to underlie the pathophysiology of several major(More)
Information gleaned from learning and memory processes is essential in guiding behavior toward a specific goal. However, the neural mechanisms that determine how these processes are effectively utilized to guide goal-directed behavior are unknown. Here, we show that rats utilize retrospective and prospective memory and flexible switching between these 2(More)