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Autophagy is a process for the bulk degradation of proteins, in which cytoplasmic components of the cell are enclosed by double-membrane structures known as autophagosomes for delivery to lysosomes or vacuoles for degradation. This process is crucial for survival during starvation and cell differentiation. No molecules have been identified that are involved(More)
Acute and long-term effects of resistance exercise combined with vascular occlusion on muscular function were investigated. Changes in integrated electromyogram with respect to time (iEMG), vascular resistive index, and plasma lactate concentration were measured in five men either during or after elbow flexion exercises with the proximal end of the arm(More)
The social amoebae are exceptional in their ability to alternate between unicellular and multicellular forms. Here we describe the genome of the best-studied member of this group, Dictyostelium discoideum. The gene-dense chromosomes of this organism encode approximately 12,500 predicted proteins, a high proportion of which have long, repetitive amino acid(More)
Drosophila transcription factor cubitus interruptus (Ci) and its co-activator CRE (cAMP response element)-binding protein (CBP) activate a group of target genes on the anterior-posterior border in response to hedgehog protein (Hh) signaling. In the anterior region, in contrast, the carboxyl-truncated form of Ci generated by protein processing represses Hh(More)
We examined the nodal flow of well-characterized mouse mutants, inversus viscerum (iv) and inversion of embryonic turning (inv), and found that their laterality defects are always accompanied by an abnormality in nodal flow. In a randomized laterality mutant, iv, the nodal cilia were immotile and the nodal flow was absent. In a situs inversus mutant, inv,(More)
Parkinson disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of intracytoplasmic-ubiquitinated inclusions (Lewy bodies). Mutations in alpha-synuclein (A53T, A30P) and parkin cause familial Parkinson disease. Both these proteins are found in Lewy bodies. The absence of Lewy bodies in patients(More)
T lymphocytes express either alpha beta or gamma delta T-cell receptor heterodimers. Most alpha beta T cells recognize antigenic peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex molecules but the antigen recognition and biological function of gamma delta T cells is unknown. A major human gamma delta T-cell subset expressing V gamma 2 and V delta 2(More)
Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are the molecular motors conveying cargos along microtubules. KIF5s, the heavy chains of conventional kinesin (KHC), are originally identified members of KIFs, and neuronal KIF5A and ubiquitous KIF5B have been identified so far. In the present work, we cloned a novel member of KIF5, KIF5C, and generated specific(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Although mutations in alpha-synuclein have been identified in autosomal dominant PD, the mechanism by which dopaminergic neural cell death occurs remains unknown. Proteins encoded by two other genes in which(More)
Blue and violet flowers generally contain derivatives of delphinidin; red and pink flowers generally contain derivatives of cyanidin or pelargonidin. Differences in hydroxylation patterns of these three major classes of anthocyanidins are controlled by the cytochrome P450 enzymes flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase. Here we report on(More)