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Autophagy is a process for the bulk degradation of proteins, in which cytoplasmic components of the cell are enclosed by double-membrane structures known as autophagosomes for delivery to lysosomes or vacuoles for degradation. This process is crucial for survival during starvation and cell differentiation. No molecules have been identified that are involved(More)
The social amoebae are exceptional in their ability to alternate between unicellular and multicellular forms. Here we describe the genome of the best-studied member of this group, Dictyostelium discoideum. The gene-dense chromosomes of this organism encode approximately 12,500 predicted proteins, a high proportion of which have long, repetitive amino acid(More)
Drosophila transcription factor cubitus interruptus (Ci) and its co-activator CRE (cAMP response element)-binding protein (CBP) activate a group of target genes on the anterior-posterior border in response to hedgehog protein (Hh) signaling. In the anterior region, in contrast, the carboxyl-truncated form of Ci generated by protein processing represses Hh(More)
We examined the nodal flow of well-characterized mouse mutants, inversus viscerum (iv) and inversion of embryonic turning (inv), and found that their laterality defects are always accompanied by an abnormality in nodal flow. In a randomized laterality mutant, iv, the nodal cilia were immotile and the nodal flow was absent. In a situs inversus mutant, inv,(More)
Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are the molecular motors conveying cargos along microtubules. KIF5s, the heavy chains of conventional kinesin (KHC), are originally identified members of KIFs, and neuronal KIF5A and ubiquitous KIF5B have been identified so far. In the present work, we cloned a novel member of KIF5, KIF5C, and generated specific(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Although mutations in alpha-synuclein have been identified in autosomal dominant PD, the mechanism by which dopaminergic neural cell death occurs remains unknown. Proteins encoded by two other genes in which(More)
Na+/H+ exchanger catalyzes the countertransport of Na+ and H+ across membranes. We isolated a rice cDNA clone the deduced amino acid sequence of which had homology with a putative Na+/H+ exchanger in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, NHX1. The sequence contains 2330 bp with an open reading frame of 1608 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence is similar to that of NHX1(More)
Blue and violet flowers generally contain derivatives of delphinidin; red and pink flowers generally contain derivatives of cyanidin or pelargonidin. Differences in hydroxylation patterns of these three major classes of anthocyanidins are controlled by the cytochrome P450 enzymes flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase. Here we report on(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a potent vasopressor peptide that interacts with 2 major receptor isoforms - AT1 and AT2. Although blood pressure is increased in AT2 knockout mice, the underlying mechanisms remain undefined because of the low levels of expression of AT2 in the vasculature. Here we overexpressed AT2 in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells in(More)
Dilated cardiomyopathy is a severe pathology of the heart with poorly understood etiology. Disruption of the gene encoding the negative immunoregulatory receptor PD-1 in BALB/c mice, but not in BALB/c RAG-2-/- mice, caused dilated cardiomyopathy with severely impaired contraction and sudden death by congestive heart failure. Affected hearts showed diffuse(More)