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The generation of morphological, such as left-right, asymmetry during development is an integral part of the establishment of a body plan. Until recently, the molecular basis of left-right asymmetry was a mystery, but studies indicate that Nodal and the Lefty proteins, transforming growth factor-beta-related molecules, have a central role in generating(More)
lefty-1, lefty-2, and nodal are expressed on the left side of developing mouse embryos and are implicated in left-right (L-R) determination. The role of lefty-1 was examined by analyzing mutant mice lacking this gene. The lefty-1-deficient mice showed a variety of L-R positional defects in visceral organs. Unexpectedly, however, the most common feature of(More)
Retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of vitamin A, plays a pivotal role in vertebrate development. The level of RA may be determined by the balance between its synthesis and degradation. We have examined the role of CYP26, a P450 enzyme that may degrade RA, by generating mutant mice that lack CYP26. CYP26(-/-) mice exhibited anomalies, including caudal(More)
The left-right (L-R) asymmetric expression of lefty2 and nodal is controlled by a left side-specific enhancer (ASE). The transcription factor FAST2, which can mediate signaling by TGF beta and activin, has now been identified as a protein that binds to a conserved sequence in ASE. These FAST2 binding sites were both essential and sufficient for L-R(More)
Patterning of the mouse embryo along the anteroposterior axis during body plan development requires migration of the distal visceral endoderm (DVE) towards the future anterior side by a mechanism that has remained unknown. Here we show that Nodal signalling and the regionalization of its antagonists are required for normal migration of the DVE. Whereas(More)
BACKGROUND Vertebrates have numerous lateral asymmetries in the position of their organs, but the molecular basis for the determination of left-right (L-R) asymmetries remains largely unknown. TGFbeta-related genes such as lefty and nodal are L-R asymmetrically expressed in developing mouse embryos, and may be involved in L-R determination. RESULTS We(More)
We examined the nodal flow of well-characterized mouse mutants, inversus viscerum (iv) and inversion of embryonic turning (inv), and found that their laterality defects are always accompanied by an abnormality in nodal flow. In a randomized laterality mutant, iv, the nodal cilia were immotile and the nodal flow was absent. In a situs inversus mutant, inv,(More)
Exogenous retinoic acid (RA) induces marked effects on limb patterning, but the precise role of endogenous RA in this process has remained unknown. We have studied the role of RA in mouse limb development by focusing on CYP26B1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme that inactivates RA. Cyp26b1 was shown to be expressed in the distal region of the developing limb bud,(More)
FoxH1 (FAST) is a transcription factor that mediates signaling by transforming growth factor-beta, Activin, and Nodal. The role of FoxH1 in development has now been investigated by the generation and analysis of FoxH1-deficient (FoxH1(-/-)) mice. The FoxH1(-/-) embryos showed various patterning defects that recapitulate most of the defects induced by the(More)
GFR alpha3 is a component of the receptor for the neurotrophic factor artemin. The role of GFR alpha3 in nervous system development was examined by generating mice in which the Gfr alpha3 gene was disrupted. The Gfr alpha3-/- mice exhibited severe defects in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG), whereas other ganglia appeared normal. SCG precursor cells in(More)