Learn More
We reevaluated the bias toward a 1:1 ratio of products in multitemplate PCR used in ecological studies and showed that the template reannealing at the annealing step would not cause the bias; however, the preferential homoduplex formation during temperature decrease from denaturation to annealing step would cause the bias.
The Na(+)-driven flagellar motor in Vibrio alginolyticus rotates very fast. Rotation of a single flagellum on a stuck cell was measured by laser darkfield microscopy with submillisecond temporal resolution. The rotation rate increased with increasing external concentration of NaCl, and reached 1000 r.p.s. at 300 mM NaCl. The Na+ influx through the motor(More)
Novel methods of the bacterial motor characteristic measurement using AC field effects in a microfabricated electrode system are presented. Two methods are developed in this paper. One is the measurement of the external force-to-velocity characteristics (F-v) of swimming bacteria. Electrostatic orientation of bacteria parallel to the field lines is used to(More)
Bacterial swimming speed is sometimes known to increase with viscosity. This phenomenon is peculiar to bacterial motion. Berg and Turner (Nature. 278:349-351, 1979) indicated that the phenomenon was caused by a loose, quasi-rigid network formed by polymer molecules that were added to increase viscosity. We mathematically developed their concept by(More)
Bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium swim by rotating their flagella, each of which consists of an external helical filament and a rotary motor embedded in the cell surface. The function of the flagellar motor has been examined mainly by tethering the flagellar filament to a glass slide and observing the resultant rotation of the(More)
Swimming speeds and flagellar rotation rates of individual free-swimming Vibrio alginolyticus cells were measured simultaneously by laser dark-field microscopy at 25, 30, and 35 degrees C. A roughly linear relation between swimming speed and flagellar rotation rate was observed. The ratio of swimming speed to flagellar rotation rate was 0.113 microns, which(More)
A bacterial cell that has a single polar flagellum alternately repeats forward swimming, in which the flagellum pushes the cell body, and backward swimming, in which the flagellum pulls the cell body. We have reported that the backward swimming speeds of Vibrio alginolyticus are on average greater than the forward swimming speeds. In this study, we(More)
Spirochetes are unique among swimming bacteria in terms of their lack of external flagella. They actively move in viscous environments, and, surprisingly, the swimming speed of the spirochete Leptospira interrogans has been reported to increase with viscosity in methylcellulose solutions. Many researchers consider that the presence of a loose, quasi-rigid(More)
Swimming speed (v) and flagellar-bundle rotation rate (f) of Salmonella typhimurium, which has peritrichous flagella, were simultaneously measured by laser dark-field microscopy (LDM). Clear periodic changes in the LDM signals from a rotating bundle indicated in-phase rotation of the flagella in the bundle. A roughly linear relation between v and f was(More)