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A major response of eukaryotic cells to the presence of unfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is to activate genes that encode ER-located molecular chaperones, such as the binding protein. This response, called the unfolded protein response, requires the transduction of a signal from the ER to the nucleus. In yeast (Saccharomyces(More)
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a signal transduction pathway induced by a variety of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses and functions to maintain homeostasis of the cellular membrane in eukaryotes. Various ER stresses result in the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER, which is sensed by the transmembrane protein kinase/ribonuclease Ire1p(More)
In the unfolded protein response, the type I transmembrane protein Ire1 transmits an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signal to the cytoplasm. We previously reported that under nonstressed conditions, the ER chaperone BiP binds and represses Ire1. It is still unclear how this event contributes to the overall regulation of Ire1. The present Ire1 mutation(More)
Under conditions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, mammalian cells induce both translational repression and the unfolded protein response that transcriptionally activates genes encoding ER-resident molecular chaperones. To date, the only known pathway for translational repression in response to ER stress has been the phosphorylation of eIF-2alpha by the(More)
Upon endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, an endoribonuclease, inositol-requiring enzyme-1α, splices the precursor unspliced form of X-box-binding protein 1 messenger RNA (XBP1u mRNA) on the ER membrane to yield an active transcription factor (XBP1s), leading to the alleviation of the stress. The nascent peptide encoded by XBP1u mRNA drags the(More)
Specific cell ablation is a useful method for analyzing the in vivo function of cells. We have developed a simple and sensitive method for conditional cell ablation in transgenic mice, called "toxin receptor-mediated cell knockout." We expressed the diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor in transgenic mice using a hepatocyte-specific promoter and found that(More)
Chaperone protein BiP binds to Ire1 and dissociates in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, it remains unclear how the signal transducer Ire1 senses ER stress and is subsequently activated. The crystal structure of the core stress-sensing region (CSSR) of yeast Ire1 luminal domain led to the controversial suggestion that the molecule can(More)
IRE1, an ER-localized transmembrane protein, plays a central role in the unfolded protein response. Upon ER stress, IRE1 senses the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER, and transfers signal from the ER to the cytosol. Recently, it was reported that the luminal domain of yeast Ire1 senses the unfolded proteins via a two-step mechanism, namely(More)
Eukaryotic cells activate the unfolded-protein response (UPR) upon endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, where the stress is assumed to be the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER. Consistent with previous in vitro studies of the ER-luminal domain of the mutant UPR initiator Ire1, our study show its association with a model unfolded protein in yeast(More)
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria is widely used as a marker of gene expression and protein localization in living cells from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. However, the total fluorescent signal from wild-type GFP is very weak when expressed in cells cultured at 37 degrees C compared to 30 degrees C or below. This characteristic makes GFP(More)