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The circadian rhythms in mammals are regulated by a pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. Four clock-gene families have been found to be involved in a transcription-translation feedback loop that generates the circadian rhythm at the intracellular level. The proteins Clock and Bmal1 form a heterodimer which activates the(More)
Metformin, a biguanide, is widely used as an oral hypoglycemic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of organic cation transporter 1 (Oct1) in the disposition of metformin. Transfection of rat Oct1 cDNA results in the time-dependent and saturable uptake of metformin by the Chinese(More)
Lactobacillus reuteri is a heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium that naturally inhabits the gut of humans and other animals. The probiotic effects of L. reuteri have been proposed to be largely associated with the production of the broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound reuterin during anaerobic metabolism of glycerol. We determined the complete genome(More)
Purpose. The purpose of the present study is to examine the selectivity of various inhibitors towards the rat organic anion transporting polypeptides 1 (Oatp1: gene symbol Slc21a1) and 2 (Oatp2: Slc21a5). Methods. The inhibitory effects of 20 compounds on the Oatp1-mediated transport of estradiol 17β-D-glucuronide and on the Oatp2-mediated transport of(More)
The sorting of transmembrane proteins to endosomes and lysosomes is mediated by signals present in the cytosolic tails of the proteins. A subset of these signals conform to the [DE]XXXL[LI] consensus motif and mediate sorting via interactions with heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes. However, the identity of the AP subunits that recognize these(More)
A number of proteins are known to be involved in apical/basolateral transport of proteins in polarized epithelial cells. The small GTP-binding protein Rab8 was thought to regulate basolateral transport in polarized kidney epithelial cells through the AP1B-complex-mediated pathway. However, the role of Rab8 (Rab8A) in cell polarity in vivo remains unknown.(More)
Human organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-B (OATP2B1) is a pH-sensitive transporter expressed in the apical membranes of small intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, we have examined the contribution of OATP-B to the uptake of [3H]estrone-3-sulfate in Caco-2 cells in comparison with those of its homologs OATP-D (OATP3A1) and OATP-E (OATP4A1).(More)
The active transport of solutes mediated by the bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) and multidrug resistance associated protein-2 (MRP2/ABCC2) are thought to involve bile acid-dependent and -independent bile formation, respectively. To evaluate the potential of therapeutic agents as inhibitors of such transporters on bile canalicular membranes, we examined(More)
DEC1 suppresses CLOCK/BMAL1-enhanced promoter activity, but its role in the circadian system of mammals remains unclear. Here we examined the effect of Dec1 overexpression or deficiency on circadian gene expression triggered with 50% serum. Overexpression of Dec1 delayed the phase of clock genes such as Dec1, Dec2, Per1, and Dbp that contain E boxes in(More)
BACKGROUND The use of suitable cells transplanted into periodontal osseous defects appears to be a powerful strategy to promote periodontal tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from bone marrow have the potential for multilineage differentiation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether auto-transplantation of MSCs into(More)