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Mindfulness is currently attracting a great deal of attention as a psychotherapy technique. It is defined as bringing one's complete attention to the experiences occurring in the present moment in a nonjudgmental or accepting way. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) was developed to assess individual differences in mindfulness states. The FFMQ(More)
We examined the effect of [D-Ala2]deltorphin II, a selective delta 2-opioid receptor agonist, on the antitussive effect of [D-Ala2, MePhe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO), a selective mu-opioid receptor agonist. [D-Ala2]deltorphin (3 nmol i.c.v.) had no significant effect on the number of coughs. However, upon i.c.v. pretreatment with [D-Ala2]deltorphin II (3(More)
Effects of selective mu and delta receptor agonists on capsaicin-induced cough reflex in rats were studied. Intracisternal injection (i.cist.) of a selective mu receptor agonist [D-Ala2,Mephe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) produced dose-related depression of coughs over the 0.003-0.03 nmol dose range. The antitussive potency of DAMGO was 100-fold more potent(More)
The effect of diabetes on periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) stimulation-produced analgesia (SPA) was examined in rats. PAG SPA was assessed using the tail-pinch test. PAG stimulation produced marked analgesia in both naive and diabetic rats. Furthermore, the degree of PAG SPA did not differ between naive and diabetic rats. PAG SPA was significantly(More)
The present study sought to determine whether rats, treated neonatally with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT), have an increased sensitivity to the respiratory and cough-depressant effects induced by dihydrocodeine. The serotonin (5-HT) levels in the whole brain of 5,7-DHT-treated rats were reduced to 19% of the corresponding control values. The(More)
We examined the possibility of the involvement of endothelin (ET)-1, a potent vasoactive peptide, in the process of astrocyte proliferation after brain injury. Acute brain damage in rats was induced by cold-injury. Astrocytes changed from a differentiated state to an immature, RC-1-positive state immediately after the injury. In the injured site, the level(More)
The effects of naltrindole, a selective delta-opioid receptor antagonist, on the capsaicin-induced cough reflex in mice and rats were studied. Intraperitoneal administration of naltrindole decreased the number of coughs both in mice and rats dose dependently. The cough-depressant effects reached a peak 15 min after the administration of naltrindole and(More)
The effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the antitussive effect of (+/-) pentazocine were examined in mice. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of (+/-) pentazocine produced a dose-dependent antitussive effect in both diabetic and non-diabetic mice. There were no significant differences in the antitussive effect of (+/-) pentazocine in(More)
The effects of 7-benzylidenenaltrexone (BNTX), a selective delta 1-opioid receptor antagonist, and naltriben, a selective delta 2-opioid receptor antagonist, on the capsaicin-induced cough reflex were studied in mice. I.p. administration of BNTX in doses from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/kg reduced the number of coughs dose dependently. The antitussive effect of BNTX was(More)
Life choices (e.g., occupational choice) often include situations with two or more possible correct answers, thereby putting us in a situation of conflict. Recent reports have described that the evaluation of conflict might be crucially mediated by neural activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), although the reduction of conflict might(More)