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A large number of metabolites are found in each plant, most of which have not yet been identified. Development of a methodology is required to deal systematically with unknown metabolites, and to elucidate their biological roles in an integrated 'omics' framework. Here we report the development of a 'metabolite annotation' procedure. The metabolite(More)
Mutations in the human L1CAM gene cause X-linked hydrocephalus and MASA (Mental retardation, Aphasia, Shuffling gait, Adducted thumbs) syndrome. In vitro studies have shown that the L1 cytoplasmic domain (L1CD) is involved in L1 trafficking, neurite branching, signaling, and interactions with the cytoskeleton. L1cam knockout (L1(KO)) mice have(More)
The 5-HT3 receptor, the only ionotropic 5-HT receptor, is expressed in limbic regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cortex. However, it is not known whether it has a role in fear memory processes. Analysis of 5-HT3A receptor knockout mice in fear conditioning paradigms revealed that the 5-HT3A receptor is not required for the acquisition or(More)
Synaptic plasticity requires an activity-dependent, rapid, and long-lasting modification of synaptic character, including morphology and coupling strength. Here we show that a serine protease, neuropsin, directly and specifically modifies the synaptic adhesion molecule L1, which was localized to the presynaptic site of the asymmetric synapse in the mouse(More)
We report that neuropsin is involved in the synaptogenesis/maturation of orphan and small synaptic boutons in the Schaffer-collateral pathway. Most non-synaptic orphan boutons and a number of immature small synaptic boutons expressed the cell adhesion molecule L1 in presynaptic Schaffer-collateral terminals, whereas mature large boutons on mushroom spines(More)
The 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) type 3 (5-HT3) receptor belongs to the superfamily of Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels, and can be either homopentameric (5-HT3A) or heteropentameric (5-HT3AB) receptor. Several modulators are known, which either inhibit or potentiate this channel, but few have any appreciable selectivity between the two subtypes(More)
The O-type forkhead domain transcription factor (FOXO) is involved in many biological processes such as aging, the oxidative stress response, and growth regulation. FOXO activity is tightly controlled within cells. In particular, growth factor signaling pathways and the oxidative stress response can both stimulate nuclear translocation of this transcription(More)
Molecular biological data has rapidly increased with the recent progress of the Omics fields, e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics that necessitates the development of databases and methods for efficient storage, retrieval, integration and analysis of massive data. The present study reviews the usage of KNApSAcK Family DB in(More)
BACKGROUND The importance of L1 expression in the matured brain is suggested by physiological and behavioral studies showing that L1 is related to hippocampal plasticity and fear conditioning. The distribution of L1 in mouse brain might provide a basis for understanding its role in the brain. RESULTS We examined the overall distribution of L1 in the adult(More)
Previous immunohistochemical analysis revealed a wide distribution of L1cam-positive neural and nonneural structures in adult mouse brain. Although there were numerous punctate immunoreactive nerve terminals, only a few immunoreactive neuronal cell somata were present (Munakata et al. [2003] BMC Neurosci. 4:7). To explore the distribution of L1cam(More)