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We have characterized a rice (Oryza sativa) dwarf mutant, dwarf11 (d11), that bears seeds of reduced length. To understand the mechanism by which seed length is regulated, the D11 gene was isolated by a map-based cloning method. The gene was found to encode a novel cytochrome P450 (CYP724B1), which showed homology to enzymes involved in brassinosteroid (BR)(More)
In this study, we re-investigated the previously characterized RcsC (sensor His-kinase) --> RcsB (response regulator) phosphorelay system that is involved in the regulation of capsular polysaccharide synthesis in Escherichia coli. The previously proposed model hypothesized the occurrence of a direct phosphotransfer from RcsC to RcsB in response to an(More)
We used rice dwarf1 (d1) mutants lacking a single-copy Galpha gene and addressed Galpha's role in disease resistance. d1 mutants exhibited a highly reduced hypersensitive response to infection by an avirulent race of rice blast. Activation of PR gene expression in the leaves of the mutants infected with rice blast was delayed for 24 h relative to the wild(More)
It has been shown that the disruption of the alpha-subunit gene of heterotorimeric G-proteins (Galpha) results in dwarf traits, the erection of leaves and the setting of small seeds in rice. These mutants are called d1. We have studied the expression profiles of the transcripts and translation products of rice Galpha in ten alleles of d1 including five(More)
The alpha subunit of plant heterotrimeric G proteins (Galpha) plays pivotal roles in multiple aspects of development and responses to plant hormones. Recently, several lines of evidence have shown that Galpha participates in brassinosteroid (BR) responses in Arabidopsis and rice plants. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the roles of(More)
Two genes in the rice genome were identified as those encoding the gamma subunits, gamma1 and gamma2, of heterotrimeric G proteins. Using antibodies against the recombinant proteins for the alpha, beta, gamma1, and gamma2 subunits of the G protein complexes, all of the subunits were proven to be localized in the plasma membrane in rice. Gel filtration of(More)
In order to estimate whether mastoparan 7 specifically activates plant heterotrimeric G proteins, comparisons were made between the responses of a rice normal cultivar and a rice dwarf mutant, Daikoku dl, which has a mutation in the gene of the a subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein, to mastoparan 7. First, we found that mastoparan 7 induced the activity(More)
The alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins (G alpha) is involved in a broad range of aspects of the brassinosteroid (BR) response, such as the enhancement of lamina bending. However, it has been suggested from epistatic analysis of d1 and d61, which are mutants deficient for G alpha and the BR receptor BRI1, that G alpha and BRI1 may function via(More)
Hormonal regulation of expression of alpha-amylase II-4 that lacks the gibberellin-response cis-element (GARE) in the promoter region of the gene was studied in germinating rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds. Temporal and spatial expression of alpha-amylase II-4 in the aleurone layer were essentially identical to those of alpha-amylase I-1 whose gene contains(More)
We tested the possibility of nonconjugative lateral DNA transfer in a colony biofilm of mixed Escherichia coli strains. By simply coculturing a plasmid-free F(-) strain and another F(-) strain harboring a nonconjugative plasmid in a colony biofilm on antibiotic-free agar media, transformed cells were produced within 24-48 h at the frequency of(More)