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Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative spiral bacterium that causes gastritis and peptic ulcer and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Although Th1 immunity is involved in gastritis and the accumulation of H. pylori-specific CD4(+) T cells in the H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa(More)
The PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 axis contributes to the activation, survival, and proliferation of CD4(+) T cells upon stimulation through TCR and CD28. Here, we demonstrate that the suppression of this axis by deletion of p85α or PI3K/mTORC1 inhibitors as well as T cell-specific deletion of raptor, an essential component of mTORC1, impairs Th17 differentiation in(More)
Ghrelin, an acylated peptide serving as an endogenous ligand for GH secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. In this study, we report the critical role of maternal ghrelin in fetal development. High levels of ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) mRNA were detected in various peripheral fetal tissues beginning at embryonic d 14(More)
Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) often have autoantibodies against cardiac antigens including the M(2) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M(2)R). To elucidate the role of autoimmunity against M(2)R in disease development, we induced an immune response against M(2)R by adoptive transfer into Rag2(-/-) mice of splenocytes from M(2)R(-/-) mice(More)
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) invades the host intestine using listerial invasion proteins, internalins. The in vivo role of internalin A (InlA) and internalin B (InlB) is reported here. Intragastric (i.g.) administration and ligated loop assays with ΔinlB-Lm demonstrated that a lack of InlB significantly attenuates the invasive ability of Lm into various(More)
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a pivotal cytokine in the differentiation of regulatory T cells, and Foxo transcription factors positively regulate this process. On the other hand, the function of Foxo transcription factors is negatively regulated by PI3K/Akt signaling, which is activated by TGF-β in many types of cells; yet the role of TGF-β in Akt(More)
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