Yukihisa Kurono

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Purpose. To elucidate the catalytic mechanism of the esterase-like activity of serum albumin (SA), the reactivity of SA from six species was investigated using p-nitrophenyl esters as model substrates. Methods. The effect of pH and the energetic and thermodynamic profiles of SA were determined for all species for p-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA). Then, kinetic(More)
Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (ITPase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of inosine triphosphate (ITP) to inosine monophosphate and pyrophosphate. In Caucasian populations it is reported that the frequency of cases showing decreased ITPase activity is 5%. The structure of ITPA gene along with five single nucleotide polymorphisms has(More)
BACKGROUND Valproate (VPA) is a simple fatty acid and a substrate for the fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. Previous data suggested that the toxicity of VPA may be provoked by carnitine deficiency and the inhibition of mitochondrial β-oxidation. OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of VPA treatment on carnitine and(More)
Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a prominent method for screening newborns for diseases such as organic acidemia and fatty acid oxidation defects, although current methods cannot separate acylcarnitine isomers. Accurate determination of dicarboxylic acylcarnitines such as methylmalonylcarnitine and glutarylcarnitine has not been carried out,(More)
The presenilin (PS) complex, including PS, nicastrin (NCT), APH-1 and PEN-2, is essential for gamma-secretase activity. Previously, the PS C-terminal tail was shown to be essential for gamma-secretase activity. Here, to further understand the precise mechanism underlying the activation of gamma-secretase regulated by PS cofactors, we focused on the role of(More)
Holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) deficiency is an inborn error of biotin metabolism, leading to a multiple carboxylases deficiency. As the affected fetus sometimes presents with enlargement of the cerebral ventricles and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), prenatal administration of biotin has been attempted in some pregnancies. We present herein the(More)
Due to its increased concentration in blood, 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (C5OH-I) is an important indicator for the diagnosis of organic acidemias in newborns. However, C5OH-I has not been used as a standard in tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) assays because its isolation is difficult. We developed a new synthesis of C5OH-I and investigated its behavior(More)
It has been reported that one of the serious adverse events after the treatment of oseltamivir phosphate (OP) for influenza patients is sudden death resulting from cardiorespiratory arrest. To investigate the aetiology of such an adverse consequence, we examined effects of OP (expressed as free base) on blood pressure and ventilation in anaesthetized rats(More)
The presenilin (PS) complex, including PS, nicastrin, APH-1 and PEN-2, is essential for gamma-secretase activity, which is required for amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) generation. However, the precise individual roles of the three cofactors in the PS complex in Abeta generation remain to be clarified. Here, to distinguish the roles of PS cofactors in(More)
CYP2C19 is a clinically important enzyme involved in the metabolism of therapeutic drugs such as (S)-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, and diazepam. Individuals can be characterized as either extensive metabolizers (EM) or poor metabolizers (PM) on the basis of CYP2C19 enzyme activity. The PM phenotype occurs in 2-5% of Caucasian populations, but at(More)