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The spectrum of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is both diverse and complex. The first step in diagnosis is a suspicion of DILI based on careful consideration of recent comprehensive reports on the disease. There are some situations in which the suspicion of DILI is particularly strong. Exclusion of other possible etiologies according to the pattern of(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still a serious worldwide problem, and vaccination is the most effective strategy for primary prevention of the infection. Although universal vaccination may be required for total eradication, several countries, including Japan, have not yet adopted universal vaccination programs. Some individuals are non-responders to(More)
A 64-year-old female with advanced liver cirrhosis who had never experienced severe infections presented in 2004 with general malaise. At the time, her serum showed low levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) M (11 mg/dl) with high levels of both IgG (2,942 mg/dl) and IgA (808 mg/dl). Because serum levels of IgG and IgA in previous cases of selective IgM deficiency(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells. Although two subsets of circulating DCs, lineage(-)CD11c(+)CD4(low) (CD11c(+)DCs) and lineage (-)CD11c(-)CD4(+)CD123(+) (CD123(+)DCs) are identified in humans, the role of each DC subset in the immunopathogenesis of liver diseases is unknown. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Natural killer T (NKT) cells have been recently reported to concern with various lipid disorders. The role of NKT cells in the hepatic lipid disorder, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has, however, not yet been clarified. To assess the role of NKT cells in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, we analyzed the composition and function of(More)
Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. In patients with advanced(More)
Several studies revealed that gut microbiota are associated with various human diseases, e.g., metabolic diseases, allergies, gastroenterological diseases, and liver diseases. The liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to the entry of gut bacteria or their metabolites into the liver through the portal vein, and the liver-gut axis is(More)
The liver experiences various changes with aging that could affect clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with liver diseases. Both liver volume and blood flow decrease significantly with age. These changes and decreased cytochrome P450 activity can affect drug metabolism, increasing susceptibility to drug-induced liver injury. Immune responses(More)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent chronic liver disease and shows various inflammatory changes in the liver. Among those inflammatory cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells are found to have a critical role during the disease progression. NKT cells may have a protective role at the early stage with simple steatosis through(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Fas-associated phosphatase-1 (FAP-1) has been thought as an inhibitor in Fas-mediated apoptosis. Here, we investigated the role of FAP-1 in Fas-mediated apoptosis of human colon cancer cells. METHOD The viability of four colon cancer cell lines treated with agonistic anti-Fas antibody was determined using WST-1 assay and cell death(More)