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The chalcone synthase (CHS) superfamily of type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) produces a variety of plant secondary metabolites with remarkable structural diversity and biological activities (e.g., chalcones, stilbenes, benzophenones, acrydones, phloroglucinols, resorcinols, pyrones, and chromones). Here we describe an octaketide-producing novel(More)
Benzalacetone synthase (BAS) and chalcone synthase (CHS) are plant-specific type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) that share approximately 70% amino acid sequence identity. BAS catalyzes a one-step decarboxylative condensation of 4-coumaroyl-CoA with malonyl-CoA to produce a diketide benzalacetone, whereas CHS performs sequential condensations with three(More)
We focus on Internet rumors and present an empirical analysis and simulation results of their diffusion and convergence during emergencies. In particular, we study one rumor that appeared in the immediate aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, which later turned out to be misinformation. By investigating whole Japanese tweets that(More)
A novel plant-specific type III polyketide synthase (PKS) that catalyzes formation of a pentaketide chromone, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone, from five molecules of malonyl-CoA, was cloned and sequenced from aloe (Aloe arborescens). Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Met207 (corresponding to Thr197 in CHS) determines the polyketide chain length and the(More)
The enzyme activities encoded in five cDNAs for chalcone synthase (CHS) homologs from hop were investigated. Only valerophenone synthase (VPS) and CHS_H1 showed both naringenin-chalcone and phlorisovalerophenone forming activity. Narigenin-chalcone production by VPS was much lower than by CHS_H1. Therefore, it is highly possible that flavonoid depends(More)
To uncover an underlying mechanism of collective human dynamics, we survey more than 1.8 billion blog entries and observe the statistical properties of word appearances. We focus on words that show dynamic growth and decay with a tendency to diverge on a certain day. After careful pretreatment and the use of a fitting method, we found power laws generally(More)
Hayafumi Watanabe, Yukie Sano, Hideki Takayasu, and Misako Takayasu Hottolink,Inc., 6 Yonbancho Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0081, Japan Risk Analysis Research Center, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8562, Japan Faculty of Engineering, Information and Systems, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki(More)
To elucidate the nontrivial empirical statistical properties of fluctuations of a typical nonsteady time series representing the appearance of words in blogs, we investigated approximately 3×10^{9} Japanese blog articles over a period of six years and analyze some corresponding mathematical models. First, we introduce a solvable nonsteady extension of the(More)
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