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Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2, also known as tetherin) is a recently identified interferon-inducible host restriction factor that can block the production of enveloped viruses by trapping virus particles at the cell surface. This antiviral effect is counteracted by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein viral protein U(More)
Previous research has shown that it may be possible to diagnose infections of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) using plasma by a partial least squares regression analysis of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectra. In this study, the features of plasma in HIV-1-infected and healthy individuals were further investigated by Vis-NIR spectroscopy(More)
CXCR4-using HIV-1 was previously shown to replicate more efficiently in a healthy donor-derived CD4(+) CD38(+) than in a CD4(+) CD38(-) T-cell subset after stimulation with interleukin (IL)-4. Here, we identified 3 cellular genes, which were expressed to a higher level in an IL-4-stimulated CD38(-) subset. One of the 3 genes, RNF125/TRAC-1, was involved in(More)
Presently, the diagnosis of virus infections is based mainly on serological assays. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) have been increasingly used for the diagnosis of such viral infections, the risk of transfusion-transmitted blood-borne viruses remains. Furthermore, PCR and ELISA are expensive and(More)
The transferrin receptor (TfR) mediates the uptake of transferrin (Tf)-bound iron from the plasma into the cells of peripheral tissues. The TfR continuously recycles between the plasma membrane and early/recycling endosomes. TfR expression is tightly controlled by the intracellular iron concentration through the regulation of TfR mRNA stability. However,(More)
The interferon-inducible host restriction factor bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2/tetherin) blocks the release of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses. In turn, these viruses have evolved specific antagonists to counteract this host antiviral molecule, such as the HIV-1 protein Vpu. BST-2 is a type II transmembrane protein with an unusual topology(More)
The capacity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to infect resting cells and to produce progeny particles may contribute significantly to its pathogenicity in vivo. We previously reported that primary culture of resting CD4(+) CD38(+) T-lymphocyte subset had higher production rate of CXCR4-using (X4) HIV-1 than CD4(+) CD38(-) subset. Interleukin(More)
The interferon-inducible host restriction factor bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2/tetherin) blocks the release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by directly cross-linking virions to the membrane of infected cells. This antiviral effect is counteracted by the HIV-1 accessory protein viral protein U (Vpu) through mechanisms that remain(More)
Superinfection rates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have increasingly been leading to more variation in HIV-1, as evidenced by the emergence of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). We recently reported complementation in a persistently replication-defective subtype B-infected cell clone, L-2, by superinfection with CRF15_01B. The L-2 cells(More)
HEV infections in human and pigs have been reported in many countries; however, the precise distribution and multiplication of this virus in the host remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the distribution and multiplication of HEV genotype 3 in two piglets at the early phase of intravenous infection, and also examined the virus distribution(More)