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We study a classical many-particle system with an external control represented by a time-dependent extensive parameter in a Lagrangian. We show that thermodynamic entropy of the system is uniquely characterized as the Noether invariant associated with a symmetry for an infinitesimal nonuniform time translation t→t+ηℏβ, where η is a small parameter, ℏ is the(More)
The approach used to implement mechanical impedance can be generally separated into the following two types: an impedance control system and an admittance control system. When an impedance control system reproduces a hard environment, large vibrations are generated. In contrast, an admittance control system is excellent at reproducing a high-stiffness(More)
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