Yuki Miyamoto

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Small GTPases of the Rho family play key roles in the formation of neuronal axons and dendrites by transducing signals from guidance cues, such as neurotrophins, to the actin cytoskeleton. However, there is little insight into the mechanism by which neurotrophins regulate Rho GTPases. Here, we show the crucial role of the ubiquitous Rac1-specific guanine(More)
Small GTPases act as binary switches by cycling between an inactive (GDP-bound) and an active (GTP-bound) state. Upon stimulation with extracellular signals, guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) stimulate the exchange of GDP to GTP to shift toward the active forms of small GTPases, recognizing the downstream targets. Here we show that KIAA0793,(More)
Endogenous neurotrophins positively and negatively regulate migration of premyelinating Schwann cells before the initiation of myelination. Neurotrophin-3 (NT3) acting through the TrkC receptor tyrosine kinase stimulates Schwann cell migration via the Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. We previously demonstrated that TrkC directly phosphorylates and activates Dbs,(More)
The cellular events that precede myelination in the peripheral nervous system require rapid and dynamic morphological changes in the Schwann cell. These events are thought to be mainly controlled by axonal signals. But how signals on the axons are coordinately organized and transduced to promote proliferation, migration, radial sorting, and myelination is(More)
BACKGROUND Recovery is defined as a complex process of developing new meaning and purpose in life as one grows beyond the catastrophic effects of mental illness. To promote this process, the necessity of recovery assessment using psychometric measures has been emphasized; however, no measure to assess the individual recovery process is available in Japan.(More)
Myelin formation of the CNS is a complex and dynamic process. Before the onset of myelination, oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin-forming glia of the CNS, proliferate and migrate along axons. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the early myelination processes. Here, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), the crucial(More)
Small GTPases of the Rho family, Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, are critical regulators of the changes in the actin cytoskeleton. Rho GTPases are typically activated by Dbl-homology (DH)-domain-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Recent genetic and biochemical studies revealed a new type of GEF for the Rho GTPases. This family is composed of 11(More)
During neuronal development, axons navigate long distances, eventually forming precise connections with such targets as peripheral tissues. Dock6 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates the Rho family guanosine triphosphatases Rac1 and Cdc42 to regulate the actin cytoskeleton. We found that phosphorylation of Ser(1194) in Dock6(More)
To assess autistic symptom differences between high-functioning atypical autism (atypical symptomatology) (HAA; IQ >/= 70) and childhood autism (HCA), 53 HAA children (mean: 6.0 +/- 0.5 years) were compared with 21 HCA children (mean: 8.2 +/- 1.1 years) on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale-Tokyo version (CARS-TV). Because IQ on the Japanese version of the(More)
Valproic acid (VPA), a mood stabilizer and anticonvulsant, has a variety of neurotrophic functions; however, less is known about how VPA regulates neurite outgrowth. Here, using N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells as the model, we show that VPA upregulates Gadd45a to trigger activation of the downstream JNK cascade controlling neurite outgrowth. VPA induces the(More)