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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mechanical stress on the differentiation of the pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C2C12. C2C12 cells were cultured continuously under compressive force (0.25-2.0 g/cm(2)). After mechanical stress loading, the levels of expression of mRNAs and proteins for phenotype-specific markers of osteoblasts(More)
In orthodontic tooth movement, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) released from osteoblasts can alter the normal process of bone remodeling. We previously showed that compressive force (CF) controls bone formation by stimulating the production of PGE(2) and Ep2 and/or Ep4 receptors in osteoblasts. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of CF on the(More)
Orthodontic tooth movement induced alveolar bone resorption and formation around the teeth applied mechanical force. Although mechanical force can promote bone formation, the molecular mechanism that underlies this phenomenon is not fully understood. The purposes of this study were to determine how mechanical stress affects the osteogenic response of human(More)
OBJECTIVE In orthodontic tooth movement, some cytokines released from periodontal ligament fibroblasts and alveolar bone osteoblasts on the pressure side can alter the normal processes of bone remodelling, resulting in physiological bone resorption. We examined the effect of compressive force and interleukin (IL)-1 type I receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) on the(More)
In orthodontic tooth movement, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) released from osteoblasts can alter the normal process of bone remodeling. We examined the effect of compressive force (CF) on PGE(2) production, PGE receptors (Ep1-4) expression, phosphorylation of protein kinase A (p-PKA), and calcium content in Saos-2 cells. PGE(2) production increased as CF(More)
OBJECTIVE The prostaglandins (PGs) released from osteoblasts can alter the process of bone remodelling. Recently, we showed that compressive force induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17s and their receptors in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and that IL-17A was expressed most highly. Consequently, in the current study we(More)
Bone matrix turnover is regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and the plasminogen activation system, including tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1). We previously demonstrated that 1.0g/cm(2) of(More)
Phosphate (Pi) plays a critical role in the maintenance of mineralized tissues and signaling in the intracellular environment. Although extracellular phosphate concentration is maintained at fixed levels, physiological machineries involved in phosphate homeostasis in bone, which is the largest phosphate storage site, have not yet been fully elucidated. Here(More)
This paper introduces novel interactive techniques for designing original hand-launched free-flight glider airplanes which can actually fly. The aerodynamic properties of a glider aircraft depend on their shape, imposing significant design constraints. We present a compact and efficient representation of glider aerodynamics that can be fit to real-world(More)
We present an example-based elastic deformation method that runs in real time. Example-based elastic deformation was originally presented by Martin et al. [MTGG11], where an artist can intuitively control elastic material behaviors by simply giving example poses. Their FEM-based approach is, however, computationally expensive requiring nonlinear(More)