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Bradykinin (BK) has been reported to be a mediator of brain damage in acute insults. Receptors for BK have been identified on microglia, the pathologic sensors of the brain. Here, we report that BK attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta from microglial cells, thus acting as an(More)
Microglia express AMPA (α-amino-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate)-type of glutamate (Glu) receptors (AMPAR), which are highly Ca(2+) impermeable due to the expression of GluA2. However, the functional importance of AMPAR in microglia remains to be investigated, especially under pathological conditions. As low expression of GluA2 was reported in some(More)
A sensitive and accurate internal standard method to determine melatonin in mammalian tissues and physiological fluids has been described. This method includes the oxidation of melatonin to a highly fluorescent compound, N-[(6-methoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinolin-3-yl)methyl]acetamide (6-MOQMA), and the determination of 6-MOQMA by a reversed-phase HPLC system.(More)
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