Yuki Kobayashi

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Retroviruses are the only group of viruses known to have left a fossil record, in the form of endogenous proviruses, and approximately 8% of the human genome is made up of these elements. Although many other viruses, including non-retroviral RNA viruses, are known to generate DNA forms of their own genomes during replication, none has been found as DNA in(More)
Phenacetin was withdrawn from the market because it caused renal failure in some patients. Many reports indicated that the nephrotoxicity of phenacetin is associated with the hydrolyzed metabolite, p-phenetidine. Acetaminophen (APAP), the major metabolite of phenacetin, is also hydrolyzed to p-aminophenol, which is a nephrotoxicant. However, APAP is safely(More)
Rifamycins such as rifampicin, rifabutin, and rifapentine are used for the treatment of tuberculosis and induce various drug-metabolizing enzymes. Rifamycins have been reported to be mainly deacetylated by esterase(s) expressed in human liver microsomes (HLM) to 25-deacetylrifamycins, but the responsible enzyme remained to be determined. In this study, we(More)
The complete chloroplast DNA sequence (122 890 bp) of the moss Physcomitrella patens has been determined. The genome contains 83 protein, 31 tRNA and four rRNA genes, and a pseudogene. Four protein genes (rpoA, cysA, cysT and ccsA) found in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and the hornwort Anthoceros formosae are absent from P.patens. The overall(More)
Human arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC) is a major esterase responsible for the hydrolysis of clinical drugs such as flutamide, phenacetin, and rifampicin. Thus, AADAC is considered to be a relevant enzyme in preclinical drug development, but there is little information about species differences with AADAC. This study investigated the species differences in(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of RNA-2 from a Japanese isolate IP of broad bean wilt virus (BBWV) was determined. The sequence encodes a single large polyprotein, which contains a putative movement protein and two coat proteins (CPs). The 3′-terminal sequences of RNA-2 were also determined for three other Japanese isolates and two ATCC isolates (PV132(More)
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD;E.C. 4.1.1.15) catalyzes the production of GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. We recently isolated a lambda gt-11 recombinant, lambda-GAD, that contains the cDNA for GAD from feline brain (Kaufman et al., 1986). Interestingly, the beta-galactosidase-GAD fusion protein encoded by lambda GAD is(More)
Spike-timing-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) were investigated in the CA1 area of hippocampal slices using optical imaging. A pair of electrical pulses were used to stimulate the Schaffer-commissural collateral and the stratum oriens with various sets of relative timing (tau) between the two stimuli. These sets of(More)
Flutamide, an antiandrogen drug, is widely used for the treatment of prostate cancer. The major metabolic pathways of flutamide are hydroxylation and hydrolysis. The hydrolyzed metabolite, 5-amino-2-nitrobenzotrifluoride (FLU-1), is further metabolized to N-hydroxy FLU-1, an assumed hepatotoxicant. Our previous study demonstrated that arylacetamide(More)
Phenacetin has been used as an analgesic antipyretic but has now been withdrawn from the market due to adverse effects such as methemoglobinemia and renal failure. It has been suggested that metabolic activation causes these adverse effects; yet, the precise mechanisms remain unknown. We previously demonstrated that human arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC)(More)