Learn More
— Reinforcement learning is a framing of enabling agents to learn from interaction with environments. It has focused generally on Markov decision process (MDP) domains, but a domain may be non-Markovian in the real world. In this paper, we develop a new description of macro-actions for non-Markov decision process (NMDP) domains in reinforcement learning. A(More)
Our purpose in this study was to reduce the noise in order to improve the SNR of Dw images with high b-value by using two correction schemes. This study was performed with use of phantoms made from water and sucrose at different concentrations, which were 10, 30, and 50 weight percent (wt%). In noise reduction for Dw imaging of the phantoms, we compared two(More)
Entrance surface dose (ESD) measurements are important in X-ray computed tomography (CT) for examination, but in clinical settings it is difficult to measure ESDs because of a lack of suitable dosimeters. We focus on the capability of a small optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter. The aim of this study is to propose a practical method for using(More)
The chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effect on an egg white (EW) suspension was investigated for optimization of magnetization transfer (MT) power (B1,rms) and pH dependency with the addition of lactic acid. Applying a higher MT pulse, B1,rms, Z-spectrum shows higher asymmetry and the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR)asym signal increases to(More)
Our aim in this study is to derive an identification limit on a dosimeter for not disturbing a medical image when patients wear a small-type optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter on their bodies during X-ray diagnostic imaging. For evaluation of the detection limit based on an analysis of X-ray spectra, we propose a new quantitative(More)
Hydrodynamic tail vein injection was considered an in vivo transfection method that yields a higher level of gene expression mainly in the liver. This method has been applied to cancer gene therapy targeting both hepatic and non-hepatic cancers. However, intratumor transgene expression in non-hepatic tumors has not been well studied. In this study, we(More)
For X-ray inspections by way of general X-ray equipment, it is important to measure an entrance-skin dose. Recently, a small optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter was made commercially available by Landauer, Inc. The dosimeter does not interfere with the medical images; therefore, it is expected to be a convenient detector for measuring personal(More)
The purpose of this study is to clarify the degree of impregnation resulting from treatment of internal waterlogged wood samples using MRI. On a 1.5T MR scanner, T1 and T2 measurements were performed using inversion recovery and spin-echo sequences, respectively. The samples were cut waterlogged pieces of wood treated with various impregnation techniques(More)
For X-ray diagnosis, the proper management of the entrance skin dose (ESD) is important. Recently, a small-type optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (nanoDot OSL dosimeter) was made commercially available by Landauer, and it is hoped that it will be used for ESD measurements in clinical settings. Our objectives in the present study were to propose a(More)