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Neurexins are neuronal cell surface proteins with hundreds of isoforms. In yeast two-hybrid screens for intracellular molecules interacting with different neurexins, we identified a single interacting protein called CASK. CASK is composed of an N-terminal Ca2+, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase sequence and a C-terminal region that is similar to the(More)
PSD-95 is a component of postsynaptic densities in central synapses. It contains three PDZ domains that localize N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2 (NMDA2 receptor) and K+ channels to synapses. In mouse forebrain, PSD-95 bound to the cytoplasmic COOH-termini of neuroligins, which are neuronal cell adhesion molecules that interact with beta-neurexins(More)
Clostridial neurotoxins inhibit neurotransmitter release by selective and specific intracellular proteolysis of synaptobrevin/VAMP, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) or syntaxin. Here we show that in binary reactions synaptobrevin binds weakly to both SNAP-25 and syntaxin, and SNAP-25 binds to syntaxin. In the presence of all three(More)
Neurexins are neuronal cell surface proteins with hundreds of isoforms generated by alternative splicing. Here we describe neuroligin 1, a neuronal cell surface protein that is enriched in synaptic plasma membranes and acts as a splice site-specific ligand for beta-neurexins. Neuroligin 1 binds to beta-neurexins only if they lack an insert in the(More)
At synaptic junctions, pre- and postsynaptic membranes are connected by cell adhesion and have distinct structures for specialized functions. The presynaptic membranes have a machinery for fast neurotransmitter release, and the postsynaptic membranes have clusters of neurotransmitter receptors. The molecular mechanism of the assembly of synaptic junctions(More)
1. Effects of microionophoretic application of acetylcholine (ACh) and its antagonists on neuronal responses to visual stimuli and to electrical stimulation of the lateral geniculate nucleus were studied in the cat striate cortex. 2. Responses elicited visually and electrically were facilitated by ACh in 74% of the cells tested, whereas the responses were(More)
Three synaptic proteins, syntaxin, SNAP-25 and synaptobrevin, were recently identified as targets of clostridial neurotoxins that irreversibly inhibit synaptic vesicle fusion. Experiments searching for membrane receptors for N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF), which has an important role in membrane fusion, revealed an ATP-dependent interaction(More)
A placebo-controlled study was conducted to test the effect of Calpis (Calpis Food Industry Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) sour milk, i.e., a milk fermented with a starter containing Lactobacillus helveticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on the blood pressure of 30 elderly hypertensive patients, most of whom were taking antihypertensive medication. Subjects were(More)
PSD-95/SAP90 is a member of membrane-associated guanylate kinases localized at postsynaptic density (PSD) in neuronal cells. Membrane-associated guanylate kinases are a family of signaling molecules expressed at various submembrane domains which have the PDZ (DHR) domains, the SH3 domain, and the guanylate kinase domain. PSD-95/SAP90 interacts with(More)
The unc-13 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans is essential for normal presynaptic function and encodes a large protein with C1- and C2-domains. In protein kinase C and synaptotagmin, C1- and/or C2-domains are regulatory domains for Ca2+, phospholipids, and diacylglycerol, suggesting a role for unc-13 in regulating neurotransmitter release. To determine if a(More)