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The 2009 human pandemic influenza (H1N1) virus possesses the HA gene of the H1 subtype. The evolutionary process of the 2009 H1N1 virus remains to be defined. We performed genetic analyses of the HA gene by comparing the 2009 H1N1 virus with seasonal human and swine viruses. We analyzed sequences of 116 2009 H1N1 viruses, and obtained 1457 seasonal H1N1,(More)
MicroRNAs are expressed by all multicellular organisms and play a critical role as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Moreover, different microRNA species are known to influence the progression of a range of different diseases, including cancer and microbial infections. A number of different human viruses also encode microRNAs that can(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a significant public health concern in Asia, and swine is an important source of sporadic HEV infection in human. However, no epidemiological data are available regarding HEV infection among the swine or human population in the Philippines. To assess the HEV infection status among pigs in rural areas, we(More)
Influenza A virus infects not only humans, but also other species including avian and swine. If a novel influenza A subtype acquires the ability to spread between humans efficiently, it could cause the next pandemic. Therefore it is necessary to understand the evolutionary processes of influenza A viruses in various hosts in order to gain better knowledge(More)
OBJECTIVE Pandemic viral infections as emerging infectious diseases are of a great global concern. However, for some viruses, particular strains are endemic to specific areas and can be genetically distinguished from strains in other regions. In contrast, for some other viruses, genetically similar strains can spread and circulate all over the world. This(More)
HIV-1Tat (trans-acting activator of transcription) plays essential roles in the replication through viral mRNA and genome transcription from the HIV-1 LTR promoter. However, Tat undergoes continuous amino acid substitutions. As a consequence, the virus escapes from host immunity indicating that genetic diversity of Tat protein in major HIV-1 subtypes is(More)
Infection due to the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is widespread. The present study was performed to assess the protocols used for the molecular diagnosis of MERS-CoV by analyzing the nucleotide sequences of viruses detected between 2012 and 2015, including sequences from the large outbreak in eastern Asia in 2015. Although the(More)
Although there have been many epidemiological reports of the inter-country transmission of measles, systematic analysis of the global transmission dynamics of the measles virus (MV) is limited. In this study, we applied phylogeographic analysis to characterize the global transmission dynamics of the MV using large-scale genetic sequence data (obtained for(More)
The local and global transmission dynamics of influenza B virus is not completely understood mainly because of limited epidemiological and sequence data for influenza B virus. Here we report epidemiological and molecular characteristics of influenza B viruses from 2010 to 2013 in Leyte Island, Philippines. Phylogenetic analyses showed global dissemination(More)