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Neurons require trophic support during neural circuit formation; however, how the cellular milieu contributes to neuronal survival remains unclear. We found that layer V cortical neurons require support from microglia for survival during postnatal development. Specifically, we found that microglia accumulated close to the subcerebral and callosal projection(More)
Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a gray-level textural index of bone microarchitecture derived from lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images. TBS is a bone mineral density (BMD)-independent predictor of fracture risk. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine whether TBS predicted fracture risk independently of FRAX probability(More)
Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PIR-B) partially mediates the regeneration-inhibiting effects of the myelin-derived protein Nogo, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp). In this study, we report that inhibition of the PIR-B signaling cascades in neurons enhances axon regeneration in the central nervous(More)
Myelin components that inhibit axonal regeneration are believed to contribute significantly to the lack of axonal regeneration noted in the adult central nervous system. Three proteins found in myelin, Nogo, myelin-associated glycoprotein, and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein, inhibit neurite outgrowth in vitro. All of these proteins interact with the(More)
In multiple sclerosis, activated CD4(+) T cells initiate an immune response in the brain and spinal cord, resulting in demyelination, degeneration and progressive paralysis. Repulsive guidance molecule-a (RGMa) is an axon guidance molecule that has a role in the visual system and in neural tube closure. Our study shows that RGMa is expressed in bone(More)
To explore the association between dietary habits and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mortality in Japan, univariate analyses was performed using data from the JACC Study. A cohort of 46,465 males and 64,327 females aged 40 to 79 in 19 prefectures in Japan completed the baseline survey during 1988-1990 and were followed up until the end of 1999. The(More)
Plant species diversity in Eurasian wetlands and grasslands depends not only on productivity but also on the relative availability of nutrients, particularly of nitrogen and phosphorus. Here we show that the impacts of nitrogen:phosphorus stoichiometry on plant species richness can be explained by selected plant life-history traits, notably by plant(More)
Evidence suggests a link between adiponectin, an adipocytokine, and liver tumorigenesis. Different multimer complexes of adiponectin, with low-molecular weight (LMW), middle-molecular weight (MMW) and high-molecular weight (HMW), may have different roles. Therefore the present study was performed with the aim of assessing associations between these(More)
Rho kinase (ROCK) is a serine/threonine kinase and a downstream target of the small GTPase Rho. The RhoA/ROCK pathway is associated with various neuronal functions such as migration, dendrite development, and axonal extension. Evidence from animal studies reveals that RhoA/ROCK signaling is involved in various central nervous system (CNS) diseases,(More)
Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is an integral membrane protein predominantly expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum. Sig-1R demonstrates a high affinity to various synthetic compounds including well-known psychotherapeutic drugs in the central nervous system (CNS). For that, it is considered as an alternative target for psychotherapeutic drugs. On the cellular(More)