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UGA is a nonsense or termination (opal) codon throughout prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, mitochondria use not only UGG but also UGA as a tryptophan codon. Here, we show that UGA also codes for tryptophan in Mycoplasma capricolum, a wall-less bacterium having a genome only 20-25% the size of the Escherichia coli genome. This conclusion is based on the(More)
A nearly full-length cDNA was isolated from a cDNA library prepared from incipiently senescent radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cotyledons using a previously isolated cDNA clone for dark-inducible mRNA as a probe (A Watanabe, N Kawakami, Y Azumi [1989] In Cell Separation in Plants, NATO ASI Series, Vol H35, pp 31-38. Springer-Verlag, Berlin). The clone detected(More)
Bionanocapsule (BNC) is hollow nanoparticle composed of the l-protein of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen. BNC allows targeted delivery of either genes or drugs only to hepatocytes, but not to other cell types. In this study, we attempted to alter the specificity of BNC by insertion of biotin-acceptor peptide (BAP), which is efficiently biotinylated(More)
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