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In the tunica muscularis of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, gap junctions form low-resistance pathways between pacemaker cells known as interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and between ICC and smooth muscle cells. Coupling via these junctions facilitates electrical slow-wave propagation and responses of smooth muscle to enteric motor nerves. Glycyrrhetinic(More)
Two distinct populations of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) exist within the tunica muscularis of the gastric antrum, and these cells serve different physiological functions. One population of ICC generates and actively propagates electrical slow waves, and the other population of ICC is innervated by excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons and mediates(More)
Autonomic neurotransmission is thought to occur via a loose association between nerve varicosities and smooth muscle cells. In the gastrointestinal tract ultrastructural studies have demonstrated close apposition between enteric nerves and intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) in the stomach and colon and ICC in the deep muscular plexus(More)
BACKGROUND The donor cell culture in animal serum-free medium is important for the clinical application of cell transplantation therapy. Recently, human-derived platelet lysate (PL) gained interest as a substitute for fetal calf serum (FCS), but there are no studies that evaluate the validity of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) expanded with(More)
Ca(+) sparklets are subcellular Ca(2+) signals produced by the opening of L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs). In cerebral arterial myocytes, Ca(2+) sparklet activity varies regionally, resulting in low and high activity, "persistent" Ca(2+) sparklet sites. Although increased Ca(2+) influx via LTCCs in arterial myocytes has been implicated in the chain of events(More)
The donor cell culture in animal serum-free medium is quite important for the clinical application of cell transplantation therapy. This study was aimed to test the hypothesis that the human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) expanded with fetal calf serum (FCS)-free, platelet lysate (PL)-containing medium retain their biological features favoring central(More)
This study was aimed to test the hypothesis that human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) expanded in fetal calf serum (FCS)-free, platelet lysate (PL)-containing medium would retain their capacity of migration, survival, and neural differentiation when transplanted into the infarct brain, using serial in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cell growth(More)
Upon elevation of plasma glucose concentration, pancreatic β-cells generate bursts of action potentials to induce cyclic changes in [Ca(2+)]i regulating insulin release. Glucose-dependent insulin secretion is synergistically enhanced by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which increases [cAMP]i and activates protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange protein(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an intestinally derived blood glucose-lowering hormone that potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. The secretagogue action of GLP-1 is explained, at least in part, by its ability to stimulate cAMP production so that cAMP may facilitate the release of Ca(2+) from inositol trisphosphate(More)
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