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Recent studies have suggested that statins, the inhibitors for 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase in the mevalonate pathway, exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. However, the immune modulatory effects of statins on the differentiation of CD4(+) T cells and their underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. To address these issues, we examined(More)
Species in the wood-feeding genus Salganea within the cockroach subfamily Panesthiinae (Blaberidae) typically live in biparental families; their first instars suffer high mortality when removed from adults, and in at least one species, adults are known to feed neonates on oral liquids. In the closely related gregarious wood-feeding genus Panesthia , no(More)
The brain capillary endothelial cell (BCEC) is a major functional component of the blood-brain barrier and is an underlying factor in the pathophysiology of various diseases, including brain ischemia, multiple sclerosis, and neurodegenerative disorders. We examined gene silencing in BCECs by using endogenous lipoprotein to introduce short-interfering RNA(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to identify biomarkers that can be used to predict therapeutic responses to tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS We recruited patients with RA who were treated with tocilizumab for the first time, and determined therapeutic responses at 6 months. In the training cohort(More)
Although innate immune responses are necessary for the initiation of acquired immune responses and the subsequent successful elimination of pathogens, excessive responses occasionally result in lethal endotoxic shock accompanied by a cytokine storm. B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA), a coinhibitory receptor with similarities to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte(More)
BACKGROUND Lacrimal gland enlargement (LGE) is one of the characteristics of Mikulicz's disease (MD). Recently, marked serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G4 elevation and infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the enlarged exocrine glands have been reported in MD patients. Moreover, we have reported that in patients with LGE and elevated serum IgG4 levels(More)
OBJECTIVE The proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the Th17 cell cytokine IL-17A are implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the blockade of these cytokines by biologic agents provides clinical benefits for RA patients. We undertook this study to clarify the mechanisms underlying the(More)
The classification of rules may be one of the most fundamental targets in the study of cellular automata. In this paper, we propose a method for achieving such a classification, in which a new quiescent string dominance parameter F, which is orthogonal to lambda, is introduced. For N -neighbor and K -state cellular automata, in the region 1/K<lambda<1-1/K,(More)
Protein phosphorylation can be regulated by changes in kinase activity, phosphatase activity, or both. GABA(B) receptor R2 subunit (GABA(B)R2) is phosphorylated at S783 by 5'-AMP-activated-protein kinase (AMPK), and this phosphorylation modulates GABA(B) receptor desensitization. Since the GABA(B) receptor is an integral membrane protein, solubilizing(More)
This paper presents the development of a remotely operated brachytherapy system for oral cancer. The purpose of the system is to reduce exposure dose to the operator by keeping him or her at a distance of 1m from radioactive <sup>198</sup>Au sources. The system is designed to enable the operator to perform the same procedure as for conventional(More)
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