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A method was developed for detecting the selective force at single amino acid sites given a multiple alignment of protein-coding sequences. The phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the number of synonymous substitutions. Then, the neutrality was tested for each codon site using the numbers of synonymous and nonsynonymous changes throughout the(More)
We report a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of base changes in given sequences of genomic DNA. This technique is based on the facts that specific regions of genomic sequences can be efficently labeled and amplified simultaneously by using labeled substrates in the polymerase chain reaction and that in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels, the(More)
X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is an endogenous inhibitor of caspase-3, -7, and -9. Smac/DIABLO, an inhibitor of XIAP, is released from mitochondria upon receiving apoptotic stimuli and binds to the BIR2 and BIR3 domains of XIAP, thereby inhibiting its caspase-inhibitory activity. Here we report that a serine protease called HtrA2/Omi is(More)
A new temperature measurement procedure using phase mapping was developed that makes use of the temperature dependence of the water proton chemical shift. Highly accurate and fast measurements were obtained during phantom and in vivo experiments. In the pure water phantom experiments, an accuracy of more than +/- 0.5 degrees C was obtained within a few(More)
Mice were injected with a monoclonal antibody to interferon-gamma to examine the importance of endogenous production of this lymphokine in resistance against infection with the sporozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Mice with intraperitoneal infections of T. gondii that received no antibody survived and developed chronic T. gondii infection, whereas the(More)
1. Most recording studies on the role of the monkey superior colliculus (SC) in eye movement generation have so far indicated that the code of the recruited population of cells is a fixed vector command representing the desired saccadic eye displacement vector, irrespective of the position of the eyes in the orbit. Experimental evidence from(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of a novel enteric virus, Aichi virus, associated with nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in humans was determined. The Aichi virus genome proved to be a single-stranded positive-sense RNA molecule with 8,251 bases excluding a poly(A) tail; it contains a large open reading frame with 7,302 nucleotides that encodes a(More)
Cross-linking of the Ag receptors on lymphocytes initiates activation of the receptor-coupled tyrosine kinases. HS1 is one of the substrates of these kinases and has been shown to transduce the signals for both clonal expansion and deletion in lymphoid cells. To gain further insight into the mechanism of action of HS1, we have tried to identify a protein(More)
Recent studies have reported that acute administration of the psychotomimetic drug phencyclidine results in considerable increases in the amounts of both extracellular glutamate and dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, the effect of phencyclidine on the firing activity of mPFC neurons remains unknown. Here, we report the first data on(More)
Since there is a remarkable difference in susceptibility to peroral infection with Toxoplasma gondii among inbred strains of mice, we performed studies to examine the mechanism(s) of this difference in susceptibility. After peroral infection with the ME49 strain of T. gondii, C57BL/6 (B6) mice all died whereas BALB/c mice all survived. At day 7 of infection(More)