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We report a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of base changes in given sequences of genomic DNA. This technique is based on the facts that specific regions of genomic sequences can be efficently labeled and amplified simultaneously by using labeled substrates in the polymerase chain reaction and that in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels, the(More)
A method was developed for detecting the selective force at single amino acid sites given a multiple alignment of protein-coding sequences. The phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the number of synonymous substitutions. Then, the neutrality was tested for each codon site using the numbers of synonymous and nonsynonymous changes throughout the(More)
X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is an endogenous inhibitor of caspase-3, -7, and -9. Smac/DIABLO, an inhibitor of XIAP, is released from mitochondria upon receiving apoptotic stimuli and binds to the BIR2 and BIR3 domains of XIAP, thereby inhibiting its caspase-inhibitory activity. Here we report that a serine protease called HtrA2/Omi is(More)
Fabry disease is a disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism caused by deficiency of lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A), resulting in renal failure along with premature myocardial infarction and strokes. No effective treatment of this disorder is available at present. Studies of residual activities of mutant enzymes in many Fabry patients showed(More)
Mice were injected with a monoclonal antibody to interferon-gamma to examine the importance of endogenous production of this lymphokine in resistance against infection with the sporozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Mice with intraperitoneal infections of T. gondii that received no antibody survived and developed chronic T. gondii infection, whereas the(More)
From an exposure of 25.5 kiloton-years of the Super-Kamiokande detector, 900 muon-like and 983 electronlike single-ring atmospheric neutrino interactions were detected with momentum pe > 100 MeV/c, pμ > 200 MeV/c, and with visible energy less than 1.33 GeV. Using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation, the ratio (μ/e)DATA/(μ/e)MC was measured to be 0.61 ±(More)
A new temperature measurement procedure using phase mapping was developed that makes use of the temperature dependence of the water proton chemical shift. Highly accurate and fast measurements were obtained during phantom and in vivo experiments. In the pure water phantom experiments, an accuracy of more than +/- 0.5 degrees C was obtained within a few(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of a novel enteric virus, Aichi virus, associated with nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in humans was determined. The Aichi virus genome proved to be a single-stranded positive-sense RNA molecule with 8,251 bases excluding a poly(A) tail; it contains a large open reading frame with 7,302 nucleotides that encodes a(More)
Cross-linking of the Ag receptors on lymphocytes initiates activation of the receptor-coupled tyrosine kinases. HS1 is one of the substrates of these kinases and has been shown to transduce the signals for both clonal expansion and deletion in lymphoid cells. To gain further insight into the mechanism of action of HS1, we have tried to identify a protein(More)
The complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome (150,613 bp) from the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris C-27 has been determined. The genome contains no large inverted repeat and has one copy of rRNA gene cluster consisting of 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNA genes. It contains 31 tRNA genes, of which the tRNALeu(GAG) gene has not been found in land(More)