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The occurrence and chemical nature of the cross-links between cellulose microfibrils in outer epidermal cell walls in Pisum sativum cv. Alaska was investigated by rapid-freezing and deep-etching techniques coupled with chemical and enzymatic treatments. The cell wall in the elongating region of epidermal cells was characterized by the absence of the(More)
Immunofluorescence microscopy using an antibody against xyloglucan (XG) revealed its dynamics during the cell cycle. In interphase tobacco BY-2 cells, punctate and scattered fluorescence was observed throughout the cytoplasm. Colocalization of such signals with cortical microtubules (MTs) was clearly observed on the membrane ghosts. They were also(More)
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a widespread environmental pollutant and causes a serious hazard to health worldwide. However, molecular mechanisms underlying MeHg toxicity remain elusive. We show that MeHg reduced mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) viability in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, MeHg treatment increased levels of autophagy markers LC3-II and p62,(More)
The merC gene from the Tn21-encoded mer operon has potential uses as a molecular tool for bioremediation. It was overexpressed as the fusion proteins MerC-Sso1p or MerC-Vam3p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-MerC-Sso1p fusion proteins located primarily in the plasma membrane, although some protein was detected in the endoplasmic(More)
The characteristics of bacteria take up mercury into cells via membrane potential-dependent sequence-divergent members of the mercuric ion (Mer) superfamily, i.e., a periplasmic mercuric ion scavenging protein (MerP) and one or more inner membrane-spanning proteins (MerC, MerE, MerF, and MerT), which transport mercuric ions into the cytoplasm, have been(More)
In order to clarify the physiological role of the merE gene of transposon Tn21, a pE4 plasmid that contained the merR gene of plasmid pMR26 from Pseudomonas strain K-62, and the merE gene of Tn21 from the Shigella flexneri plasmid NR1 (R100) was constructed. Bacteria with plasmid pE4 (merR-o/p-merE) were more hypersensitive to CH(3)Hg(I) and Hg(II), and(More)
The bacterial merC gene from the Tn21-encoded mer operon is a potential molecular tool for improving the efficiency of metal phytoremediation. Arabidopsis SNARE molecules, including SYP111, SYP121, and AtVAM3 (SYP22), were attached to the C-terminus of MerC to target the protein to various organelles. The subcellular localization of transiently expressed(More)
Although it has been shown that exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is linked to the induction or exacerbation of respiratory disorders, the major components responsible have not been fully identified. We examined the effects of airway exposure to nanoparticle-rich DE (NR-DE) or DE without particles on allergic pulmonary inflammation in mice. We also(More)
Phytochelatin (PC) synthesis has been well demonstrated as a major metal tolerance mechanism in Arabidopsis thaliana, whereas its contribution to long-distance element transport especially in monocots remains elusive. Using rice as a cereal model, we examined physiological roles of Oryza sativa phytochelatin synthase 1 (OsPCS1) in the distribution and(More)
Lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) culture is associated with several problems. There are ethical concerns about the collection of LECs from humans, in addition to the concern that LECs from different individuals might exhibit variable behavior. Properties of LECs such as morphology can also change when they are cultured for prolonged periods. These problems(More)