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Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with various disabilities in the offspring such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and persistent anxiety. We have reported that nicotine exposure in female mice during pregnancy, in particular from embryonic day 14 (E14) to postnatal day 0 (P0), induces long-lasting(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcription factor induced by hypoxia and degraded by ubiquitin-dependent proteasomes in normoxic conditions. Under hypoxic conditions, hydroxylation of HIF-1alpha subunit by prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) is suppressed, thus leading to increased levels of HIF. Although PHD2 plays a key role in(More)
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