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The replication of eukaryotic positive-strand RNA virus genomes occurs in the membrane-bound RNA replication complexes. Previously, we found that the extract of evacuolated tobacco BY-2 protoplasts (BYL) is capable of supporting the translation and subsequent replication of the genomic RNAs of plant positive-strand RNA viruses, including Tomato mosaic virus(More)
The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, attacks rice plants and feeds on their phloem sap, which contains large amounts of sugars. The main sugar component of phloem sap is sucrose, a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose. Sugars appear to be incorporated into the planthopper body by sugar transporters in the midgut. A total of 93 expressed(More)
In insects, Malpighian tubules are functionally analogous to mammalian kidneys in that they not only are essential to excrete waste molecules into the lumen but also are responsible for the reabsorption of indispensable molecules, such as sugars, from the lumen to the principal cells. Among sugars, the disaccharide trehalose is highly important to insects(More)
RNA viruses use various strategies to condense their genetic information into small genomes. Potyviruses not only use the polyprotein strategy, but also embed an open reading frame, pipo, in the P3 cistron in the -1 reading frame. PIPO is expressed as a fusion protein with the N-terminal half of P3 (P3N-PIPO) via transcriptional slippage of viral(More)
One of the important antiviral genetic strategies used in crop breeding is recessive resistance. Two eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E family genes, eIF4E and eIFiso4E, are the most common recessive resistance genes whose absence inhibits infection by plant viruses in Potyviridae, Carmovirus, and Cucumovirus. Here, we show that another eIF4E(More)
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