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The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, attacks rice plants and feeds on their phloem sap, which contains large amounts of sugars. The main sugar component of phloem sap is sucrose, a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose. Sugars appear to be incorporated into the planthopper body by sugar transporters in the midgut. A total of 93 expressed(More)
The replication of eukaryotic positive-strand RNA virus genomes occurs in the membrane-bound RNA replication complexes. Previously, we found that the extract of evacuolated tobacco BY-2 protoplasts (BYL) is capable of supporting the translation and subsequent replication of the genomic RNAs of plant positive-strand RNA viruses, including Tomato mosaic virus(More)
We recently cloned a trehalose transporter gene (Tret1) that contributes to anhydrobiosis induction in the sleeping chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki Hinton. Because trehalose is the main haemolymph sugar in most insects, they might possess Tret1 orthologs involved in maintaining haemolymph trehalose levels. We cloned Tret1 orthologs from four species in(More)
A plant integral membrane protein TOM1 is involved in the multiplication of Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV). TOM1 interacts with ToMV replication proteins and has been suggested to tether the replication proteins to the membranes where the viral RNA synthesis takes place. We have previously demonstrated that inactivation of TOM1 results in reduced ToMV(More)
LEA proteins are found in anhydrobiotes and are thought to be associated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. The sleeping chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki, which can survive in an almost completely desiccated state throughout the larval stage, accumulates LEA proteins in response to desiccation and high salinity conditions. However, the(More)
The analysis of post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in plants has benefited greatly from the use of cell-free extract systems. Arabidopsis as a model system provides extensive genetic resources; however, to date a suitable cell-free translation system from Arabidopsis has not been available. In this study, we devised an Arabidopsis cell-free extract(More)
In insects, Malpighian tubules are functionally analogous to mammalian kidneys in that they not only are essential to excrete waste molecules into the lumen but also are responsible for the reabsorption of indispensable molecules, such as sugars, from the lumen to the principal cells. Among sugars, the disaccharide trehalose is highly important to insects(More)
RNA viruses use various strategies to condense their genetic information into small genomes. Potyviruses not only use the polyprotein strategy, but also embed an open reading frame, pipo, in the P3 cistron in the -1 reading frame. PIPO is expressed as a fusion protein with the N-terminal half of P3 (P3N-PIPO) via transcriptional slippage of viral(More)
In pea carrying cyv1, a recessive gene for resistance to Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV), ClYVV isolate Cl-no30 was restricted to the initially infected cells, whereas isolate 90-1 Br2 overcame this resistance. We mapped the region responsible for breaking of cyv1-mediated resistance by examining infection of cyv1 pea with chimeric viruses constructed from(More)
One of the plant host resistance machineries to viruses is attributed to recessive alleles of genes encoding critical host factors for virus infection. This type of resistance, also referred to as recessive resistance, is useful for revealing plant-virus interactions and for breeding antivirus resistance in crop plants. Therefore, it is important to(More)